Undergraduate Course Catalog

Geography

K. Turcotte, Chairperson 

Geography as a science is distinguished by the spatial approach to understanding the mechanisms of the world’s physical and human environments and the linkages between them. Human geography is specifically concerned with the spatial aspects of human activities, while physical geography examines the spatial processes explaining the Earth’s physical environment. Both human and physical geographers develop skills in cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and iremote sensing. To meet society’s needs for greater geographic understanding in the twenty-first century, the Department of Geography offers four distinct options within the major.

  • Option 1. Comprehensive. This option is attractive to students desiring a broad education in either or both human and physical geography. Many Option 1 students elect to continue their studies at the graduate level.
  • Option 2. Travel and tourism. This option provides students the broad knowledge, the analytical skills, and the practical experience that are beneficial for successful careers in the travel/tourism industry. The sequence of specialized courses addresses the spatial, organizational, social, and economic aspects of travel/tourism growth and development, regions, as well as the interaction between the tourist and the destination. The program’s graduates are in demand in varied travel industry fields including retail travel, tour operations, meetings and conventions, transportation and hospitality companies, along with governmental, corporate and community organizations involved in travel/tourism promotion and development. 
  • Option 3. GIScience. This option is a technical specialization for students interested in solving social and environmental problems through advanced spatial information technology. Students learn how to visualize information in ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends by using computer software for cartography, remote sensing, and GIS. Cartography is the art and science of making maps; remote sensing provides a means to capture visual and digital information about the earth through airborne cameras and advanced electronic spaceborne sensors; a geographic information system is a set of computer tools for analyzing spatial data. Geographic information processing and mapping systems are used by many public and private organizations worldwide and students graduating with these technical skills are in great demand. 
  • Option 4. Meteorology and climatology. This option is designed for students with strong interests in weather and climate. The approach is to employ the general principles of science in systematic investigations of earth-atmosphere system and subsystem dynamics and to train students in the use of technology (satellites, radar, automated weather observations, and numerical weather prediction) to analyze these systems on a number of spatial and temporal scales. Two tracks have been developed within Option 4 to address a variety of student career interests within the fields of operational meteorology and climatology. The general track is intended for students seeking positions in which knowledge of operational meteorology and climatology is somewhat peripheral in satisfying primary task objectives. Examples include emergency management, environmental analysis, and transportation planning. Meteorology and climatology—professional meets American Meteorological Society (AMS) qualifications for the title “meteorologist,” and Federal Civil Service requirements (GS 1340) for employment by the National Weather Service (NWS).

The department also offers minors in geography, GIScience, meteorology and climatology, and travel and tourism.


MAJOR IN GEOGRAPHY, 51-71 hours

Recommended minors for all options include anthropology, history, natural resources, and environmental management. 

PREFIX

NO

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

Core requirements, 15 hours

GEOG



101
150
240
250
265

Earth Sea Sky: Geographic View
Global Geography
Map Reading and Graphics
Spatial Analytical Methods
Intro Geographic Info Systems

3
3
3
3
3





15 hrs
Complete one option
Option 1: Comprehensive, 36 hours

GEOG




120
121
230
340
342
470

Economic Geog of Globalization
Geog of Cultural Environment
Elementary Meteorology
Cartograp Visual Spatial Data
Introduction to Remote Sensing
Political Geography

3
3
3
3
3
3

6 hours from

GEOG



330
331
334
344
450

Weather Analysis (3)
Global Climatology (3)
Atmospheric Hazards (3)
Adv Geog Info Systems Analysis (3)
Mesoscale Meteorology (3)

6

6 hours from

GEOG



261
320
321
323
423

Tourism Systems (3)
Immig & Ethnic Geog of the US (3)
Urban Geography (3)
Tourism & Geography of Food (3)
Population Geography (3)

6

6 hours from

GEOG




350
351
353
354
356
357

Geog United States & Canada (3)
Latin American and Caribbean (3)
Geography of Indiana (3)
Geography of Asia (3)
Geog Russia and Its Neighbors (3)
Geography of Europe (3)

6





51 hrs
Minors in related fields are recommended.
Option 2: Travel and tourism, 42 hours

GEOG





121
261
262
369
or
479
491

Geog of Cultural Environment
Tourism Systems
Tourism Regions
Professional Experience (3-6)

Practical Experience (3-6)
Tourism Development

3
3
3


3
3

12 hours from

FCFN




GEOG

MGT

MKG
NREM

250
or
363
or
376
360
460
300
or
300
371
or
392

Lodging Management (3)

Admin of Food and Nutr Systems (3)

Intro Event Management (3)
Tours and Meetings Management (3)
Travel and Tourism Consulting (3)
Managing Behavior in Org (3)

Principles of Marketing (3)
Outdoor Recreation and Socy (3)

Environmental Interpretation (3)





12

6 hours from

GEOG





350
351
353
354
356
357
480

Geog United States & Canada (3)
Latin American and Caribbean (3)
Geography of Indiana (3)
Geography of Asia (3)
Geog Russia and Its Neighbors (3)
Geography of Europe (3)
Distant Areas Field Studies (3)

6

9 hours from

GEOG









120
230
320
321
323
331
334
340
423
470
480

Economic Geog of Globalization (3)
Elementary Meteorology (3)
Immig & Ethnic Geog of the US (3)
Urban Geography (3)
Tourism & Geography of Food (3)
Global Climatology (3)
Atmospheric Hazards (3)
Cartograp Visual Spatial Data (3)
Population Geography (3)
Political Geography (3)
Distant Areas Field Studies (3)



9





57 hrs
Recommended minors for option 2 include modern languages and classics, food management, hospitality management, natural resources, environmental management, and any business or area studies.    
Option 3: GIScience, 36-39 hours

GEOG






340
341
342
343
344
369
or
479

Cartograp Visual Spatial Data
Cartogra Visual Spatial Data 2
Introduction to Remote Sensing
Advanced Remote Sensing
Adv Geog Info Systems Analysis
Professional Experience (3-6)

Practical Experience (3-6)

3
3
3
3
3


3-6

6 hours from

GEOG


443
444
445
448

Sem Adv Techniq Remote Sensing (3)
Adv Cartogr Visual Spatial Data (3)
GIS Apps Design & Development (3)
Geog Infomation System Design (3)

6

6 hours from

GEOG








120
121
230
320
321
330
331
334
423
470

Economic Geog of Globalization (3)
Geog of Cultural Environment (3)
Elementary Meteorology (3)
Immig & Ethnic Geog of the US (3)
Urban Geography (3)
Weather Analysis (3)
Global Climatology (3)
Atmospheric Hazards (3)
Population Geography (3)
Political Geography (3)


6

6 hours from

GEOG




350
351
353
354
356
357

Geog United States & Canada (3)
Latin American and Caribbean (3)
Geography of Indiana (3)
Geography of Asia (3)
Geog Russia and Its Neighbors (3)
Geography of Europe (3)

6





51-54 hrs
Recommended minors for option 3 include computer science, geology, mathematics, urban planning and development, biology, natural resources, and environmental management.   
Option 4: Meteorology and climatology - general, 36-39 hours

GEOG






230
330
331
332
334
344
350
450

Elementary Meteorology
Weather Analysis
Global Climatology
Climate Change & Modification
Atmospheric Hazards
Adv Geog Info Systems Analysis
Geog United States & Canada
Mesoscale Meteorology

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

6-9 hours from

GEOG



351
354
356
357
490

Latin American and Caribbean (3)
Geography of Asia (3)
Geog Russia and Its Neighbors (3)
Geography of Europe (3)
Field Obs Severe Local Storms (6)

6-9

6 hours from

GEOG







340
341
342
343
410
435
443
445
448

Cartograp Visual Spatial Data (3)
Cartogra Visual Spatial Data 2 (3)
Introduction to Remote Sensing (3)
Advanced Remote Sensing (3)
Broadcast Meteorology (3)
Satellite & Radar Meteorology (3)
Sem Adv Techniq Remote Sensing (3)
GIS Apps Design & Development (3)
Geog Infomation System Design (3)

6





51-54 hrs
For students intending on careers with either the National Weather Service or as broadcast meteorologists that wish to qualify for the American Meteorological Society Certified Broadcast Meteorologist (CBM) designation, the following option is required:   
Meteorology and climatology – professional, 51-56 hours 

GEOG














MATH

230
330
331
332
334
344
350
or
490
425
435
447
449
450
451
374

Elementary Meteorology
Weather Analysis
Global Climatology
Climate Change & Modification
Atmospheric Hazards
Adv Geog Info Systems Analysis
Geog United States & Canada (3)

Field Obs Severe Local Storms (6)
Physical Meteorology
Satellite & Radar Meteorology
Thermodynamic Meteorology
Synoptic Meteorology
Mesoscale Meteorology
Dynamic Meteorology
Differential Equations

3
3
3
3
3
3


3-6
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Select two courses from

GEOG







MATH

340
341
342
343
410
443
445
448
267

Cartograp Visual Spatial Data (3)
Cartogra Visual Spatial Data 2 (3)
Introduction to Remote Sensing (3)
Advanced Remote Sensing (3)
Broadcast Meteorology (3)
Sem Adv Techniq Remote Sensing (3)
GIS Apps Design & Development (3)
Geog Information System Design (3)
Calculus 3 (4)

6-7

Select one course from

CHEM
CS
GEOL

PHYC

111
120
206
420
450

General Chemistry 1 (4)
Computer Science 1 (4)
Oceans and Nations (3)
Oceanography (3)
Electricity and Magnetism 1 (3)

3-4





66-71 hrs
PHYC 120 and 122, MATH 165 and 166 required as prerequisite. Additional course work in the basic sciences such as mathematics, physics, and computer science is encouraged. Recommended minors for option 4 include natural resources, environmental management, and telecommunications.  

MINOR IN GEOGRAPHY, 21 hours

PREFIX

NO

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

GEOG




101
120
121
150
240
265

Earth Sea Sky: Geographic View
Economic Geog of Globalization
Geog of Cultural Environment
Global Geography
Map Reading and Graphics
Intro Geographic Info Systems

3
3
3
3
3
3

3 hours from approved 200-level and above GEOG electives

3


21 hrs
Not open to geography majors.

MINOR IN GIScience, 21 hours

PREFIX

NO

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

Core requirements, 9 hours

GEOG

265
340
342

Intro Geographic Info Systems
Cartograp Visual Spatial Data 
Introduction to Remote Sensing

3
3
3





9 hrs
12 hours from

GEOG





341
343
344
443
444
445
448

Cartogra Visual Spatial Data 2 (3)
Advanced Remote Sensing (3)
Adv Geog Info Systems Analysis (3)
Sem Adv Techniq Remote Sensing (3)
Adv Cartog Visual Spatial Data (3)
GIS Apps Design & Development (3)
Geog Information System Design (3)

12





21 hrs
Not open to geography option 3 majors.

MINOR IN METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY, 15 hours

PREFIX 

NO    

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

GEOG

101
230
330

Earth Sea Sky: Geographic View
Elementary Meteorology
Weather Analysis

3
3
3

3 hours from

GEOG

331
332

Global Climatology (3)
Climate Change & Modification (3)

3

3 hours from

GEOG


410
435
449
450

Broadcast Meteorology (3)
Satellite & Radar Meteorology (3)
Synoptic Meteorology (3)
Mesoscale Meteorology (3)

3





15 hrs
Not open to geography option 4 majors.

MINOR IN TRAVEL AND TOURISM, 21 hours

PREFIX 

NO

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

GEOG




121
261
262
360
460
491

Geog of Cultural Environment
Tourism Systems
Tourism Regions
Tours and Meetings Management
Travel and Tourism Consulting
Tourism Development

3
3
3
3
3
3

3 hours from approved 200-level or above GEOG electives

3





21 hrs
Not open to geography option 2 majors.

TEACHER EDUCATION 

TEACHING MAJOR IN SOCIAL STUDIES, 54 hours

(See Teaching Major in Social Studies, College of Sciences and Humanities, for total requirements for this area.) 

PREFIX 

NO    

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

Geography area, 15 hours

GEOG


120
150
240
265

Economic Geog of Globalization
Global Geography
Map Reading and Graphics
Intro Geographic Info Systems

3
3
3
3

3 hours from

GEOG










321
340
342
344
350
351
353
354
356
357
423
470

Urban Geography (3)
Cartograp Visual Spatial Data (3)
Introduction to Remote Sensing (3)
Adv Geog Info Systems Analysis (3)
Geog United States & Canada (3)
Latin American and Caribbean (3)
Geography of Indiana (3)
Geography of Asia (3)
Geog Russia and Its Neighbors (3)
Geography of Europe (3)
Population Geography (3)
Political Geography (3)




3





15 hrs

SCIENCE TEACHING MAJORS

(See Science, College of Sciences and Humanities, for the Teaching
Major in Earth/Space Science.)

CERTIFICATE IN GIScience, 21 hours

PREFIX

NO

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

GEOG


240
265
340
342

Map Reading and Graphics
Intro Geographic Info Systems
Cartograp Visual Spatial Data
Introduction to Remote Sensing

3
3
3
3

9 hours from

GEOG




343
344
443
444
445
448

Advanced Remote Sensing (3)
Adv Geog Info Systems Analysis (3)
Sem Adv Techniq Remote Sensing (3)
Adv Cartog Visual Spatial Data (3)
GIS Apps Design & Development (3)
Geog Infomation System Design (3)

9





21 hrs
Students who select GEOG 444 should take GEOG 341 to meet the prerequisite.

GEOGRAPHY (GEOG)

101 Earth, Sea, and Sky: A Geographic View (3) 
Selected aspects of the physical environment and their relationship to human occupancy of the earth. Regularly scheduled laboratory. 

120 Economic Geographies of Globalization (3) 
A systematic approach to economic issues emphasizing local, regional, national, and global economic developments in the geographic setting. 

121 Geography of the Cultural Environment (3) 
Utilizes qualitative methods to investigate relationships between human culture and the environment. Spatial processes that bring about cultural diversity and change are stressed as well as the role of human activity in producing cultural landscapes. The formation of cultural landscapes over time and the impacts of globalization are emphasized. 

150 Global Geography (3) 
A basic survey course emphasizing geographic facts and interdependencies between the developed and developing world. Particular emphasis is given to physical and social environmental interdependencies. 

230 Elementary Meteorology (3) 
Introductory presentation of basic meteorological processes with a focus on applying theory to the analysis and forecasting of local weather conditions. 

240 Map Reading and Graphics (3) 
A non-technical approach to the study and making of maps. Introduction to the fundamentals of map design and construction as well as techniques for map analysis. A commercial graphics software is used to create general purpose maps for the visualization and analysis of geospatial information. 

250 Spatial Analytical Methods in Geography (3)
Serves as a basic introduction to the quantitative methods employed by geographers to describe, analyze and interpret geospatial datasets. Lecture topics will include basic descriptive statistics, hypothesis formulation and testing, sampling strategies, geographical association and correlation analysis, regression, and a multivariate statistics overview.         
    Prerequisite: MATH 108 or 111 or 112 or 125 or 132 or 161 or 162 or 165 or 166. 
    Open only to geography majors and minors. 

261 Tourism Systems (3) 
Surveys the history, components, and spatial structure of travel and tourism as a socioeconomic phenomenon and as an industry. Also examines its institutional organization, the motivations and flows of travelers, and global and local interactions and implications. 

262 Tourism Regions (3) 
Examines locational patterns of various forms of tourism and the main geographic characteristics of these destinations. Analyzes spatial and temporal models and flows and their economic, social, cultural, and environmental impacts through selected detailed case studies. 

265 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (3) 
Fundamentals of geographic information systems (GIS). How to visualize information in ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends not visible in other software systems. Develop working knowledge of the full capabilities of GIS technology. 

270 Geography of International Conflict (3)
Focuses on contemporary armed conflicts, including culture-based conflicts and competition among nations for economic and mineral resources; treats territorial disputes from a cultural and geographic perspective. Case studies vary to illustrate types of contemporary conflicts.

299X Experimental/Developmental Topics (1-6) 
Topics relevant to the discipline. Course titles will be announced before each semester. 
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned. 

320 Immigration and Ethnic Geographies of the United States (3)
A systematic upper division course which introduces the geographical aspects of immigration and ethnicity in the United States, particularly with regard to the post-1965 ethnic groups from Latin America and Asia. Specific attention is given to concepts of immigration theory, identity, race, transnationality, and community formation within the larger context of human geography. 

321 Urban Geography (3) 
Distribution, classification, structure, and function of urban centers. Special attention is given to the geographic conditions affecting urban development and growth. 

323 Tourism and Geography of Food (3) 
Surveys the origin, spatial diffusion, and cultural ecology of food crops and agriculture in the context of tourism and travel. Examines the globalization of regional foods as a cultural commodity and agricultural landscapes as tourist attractions. 

330 Weather Analysis (3) 
Presentation and practice of synoptic- and meso-scale diagnostic analysis techniques, including a review of satellite and radar remote sensing systems and image interpretation. Introduction to numerical weather prediction. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 230. 

331 Global Climatology (3) 
Introduction to the dynamics of the global climate system. Emphasizes the physical processes that force spatial variability in climate, and the feedback mechanisms associated with global teleconnections and climate change. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 230. 

332 Climate Change and Modification (3) 
Study of the variability of climate over time and space, and factors involved. Focuses on past climates, modeling of future climates, and modification at local or microscale. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 230. 

334 Atmospheric Hazards (3) 
Examination of the causes, consequences, and spatial distribution of hazards deriving from or impacting the atmosphere. Both the physical properties and processes of natural hazards (e.g. hurricanes, tornadoes, biochemical) and the human actions and reactions to these hazards will be emphasized at the local, regional, and global scales. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 101 or GEOL 101 or permission of the instructor. 

340 Cartography and Visualization of Spatial Data (3) 
Introduction to cartographic methods for the visualization and analysis of geographic phenomena. Principles of design are stressed with particular emphasis on methods for symbolizing point, line, and area elements, and the principles and use of color in cartography. Produce publication quality maps using industry standard software. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 240. 

341 Cartography and Visualization of Spatial Data 2 (3) 
Advanced techniques of cartographic production with emphasis on data representation and design for thematic mapping. Statistical methods for manipulating and symbolizing ordered spatial data are stressed. Topics covered include data classification, available inventories of data bases, and methods of interpolation. Techniques studied include dot, choropleth, proportional symbol, and isarithmic mapping. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 250, 340. 

342 Introduction to Remote Sensing (3) 
Principles of remote sensing and its applications on earth resources. Topics include the physics of remote sensing, aerial photo interpretation, photogrammetry, multispectral, hyperspectral, thermal infrared remote sensing, RADAR/LIDAR, remote sensing of vegetation, water, and soils. 

343 Advanced Remote Sensing (3) 
Digital image processing techniques utilized to analyze remotely sensed data. Topics include remote sensing data collection, image pre-processing, image enhancement, image classification, post classification analysis, and multi-temporal data analysis for change detection. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 342. 

344 Advanced Geographic Information Systems Analysis (3) 
Examination and use of analysis techniques in geographic information systems (GIS). Introduction to basic GIS programming. Diagramming GIS logic and processing flows. Exposure to widely used GIS data models. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 240, 265; or permission of the instructor. 

350 Geography of the United States and Canada (3) 
Comprehensive survey of geographic regions, settlement, land use, natural resources, and potentialities of the United States and Canada. 

351 Geography of Latin America and the Caribbean (3) 
Physical and cultural patterns in a diverse world region. Emphasizes population and settlement, agriculture, and environmental hazards in the context of development. 

353 Geography of Indiana (3) 
A geographic examination of the physical, cultural, and economic diversity of the state. Field experiences supplement classroom activities. 

354 Geography of Asia (3) 
The geography of South, Southwest, Southeast, and East Asia. A survey and analysis of the physical geographic patterns, bases of cultural diversity, and changing spatial aspects of political organization. 

356 Geography of Russia and Its Neighbors (3) 
Geographic analysis of the locational, environmental, economic, and cultural diversity of the successor countries to the Soviet Union. Regional examination of Russia, Baltic, and other East European countries, Transcaucasia and Central Asia. 

357 Geography of Europe (3) 
Examines the changing physiographic, climatic, economic, and political environments of Europe. While addressing the entire European cultural area, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west, to the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the east, primary emphasis is given to countries of Western, Northern, Southern, and Central Europe. 

360 Tours and Meetings Management (3) 
Introduces principles, strategies, and techniques applicable in planning and operational stages of tours, meetings, and other organized forms of travel and tourism, both leisure and business oriented. Faculty supervised practical field experience in tour planning and conducting. Lab fees. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 261, 262. 
    Open only to geography option 2 majors and minors, or by permission of the instructor. 

369 Professional Experience (3-6) 
Paid full- or part-time work experiences with an organization allied to a student’s area of specialization. Assignments depend on student interests and the sponsor’s convenience. Used for paid work experience only. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson. 
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned. 

410 Broadcast Meteorology (3)
Survey of weathercasting including history, current practice, and presentation techniques. Also examines methods for communicating scientific information to non-scientists. Includes a practicum where students present forecasts.                 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330. 

423 Population Geography (3) 
A systematic and regional analysis of areal patterns of population distribution, composition, migration, and growth, as well as their causes and the effects they have on the cultural landscape. 

425 Physical Meteorology (3) 
Study of the physical processes of the atmosphere with a focus on solar and terrestrial radiation, clouds, and precipitation. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330; MATH 165; PHYC 120. 

435 Satellite, Radar, and Forecasting (3) 
Study of the tools used to remotely sense and analyze the atmosphere, including meteorological satellites, Doppler radar, and forecast computer models. Emphasis is on the applications of satellite, radar, and computer model products to short and medium range weather forecasting. Includes an overview of forecast techniques and a forecasting practicum. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330. 

443 Seminar in Advanced Techniques in Remote Sensing (3) 
Advanced techniques applied to remotely sensed data using state-of-the-art software. Review of current methods of computer and manual interpretation techniques. Includes active participation in classroom presentations. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 342, 343. 

444 Advanced Cartography and Visualization of Spatial Data (3) 
Advanced course in interactive, multimedia, and animated cartography stressing the increasingly important role of digital cartography in cyberspace. Techniques are introduced for the creation of interactive products that facilitate the transformation of raw geospatial data into meaningful geographic knowledge. Projects are selected within the student’s area of interest. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 341. 

445 Geographic Information Systems Applications Design and Development (3) 
Fundamentals of geographic information systems (GIS) programming. Develop and implement customized GIS applications. Exposure to widely used GIS software programming environments. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 265, 344, or permission of the instructor. 

447 Thermodynamic Meteorology (3) 
Application of physical gas laws such as the equation of state and hydrostatic equation to investigate adiabatic processes and parcel theory as they relate to atmospheric instability and connective development. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330; MATH 165, 166; PHYC 120, 122. 

448 Geographic Information System Design (3) 
Principles of geographic information system (GIS) design. Implementation of GIS technology. Database and user-interface design. Practical experience applying advanced GIS tools to analyze spatial data. Workshop format requires student motivated projects. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 344. 

449 Synoptic Meteorology (3) 
Investigation of synoptic- and mesobeta-scale atmospheric systems, with a focus on mathematical and physical theories of weather forecasting and application of those theories through the use of satellite, radar, and numerical weather prediction technology. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330; MATH 165; PHYC 120. 

450 Mesoscale Meteorology (3) 
Survey of mesoscale-related phenomena of the atmosphere, including thunderstorms, tornadoes, and lake-effect snow. Includes information about forecasting the occurrence and evolution of such phenomena with tools like Skew-T diagrams and Doppler radar. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330. 

451 Dynamic Meteorology (3) 
Study of the variables that explain four-dimensional atmospheric behavior with primary focus on synoptic-scale processes. Special attention is given to the governing equations and associated approximation and assumption relevant to numerical weather prediction. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330; MATH 165, 166; PHYC 120, 122. 

460 Travel and Tourism Consulting (3) 
Familiarization with and assessment of various travel products and their distribution channels. Development of skills in problem solving and task functions such as: information gathering, promotion, reservation, and ticketing. Laboratory computer experience. Industry approved entry-level travel agent certification optional. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 261, 262. 
    Open only to geography option 2 majors and minors, or by permission of the instructor. 

470 Political Geography (3) 
Problems and issues surrounding the geographic distribution of political actions and outcomes in the context of globalization. Topics include war and peace, access to natural resources, nationalism, democratization, terrorism, and the politics of identity. 

479 Practical Experience (3-6) 
Full- or part-time work experience with an organization allied to a student’s area of specialization. Assignments depend upon student interests and the sponsor’s convenience. Used for non-paid work experience only. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson. 
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned. 

480 Distant Areas Field Studies (1-6) 
Physical, economic, and cultural geography in areas distant from the campus. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson. 
    A total of 12 hours of credit may be earned, but no more than 6 in any one semester or term. 
    Open to students in geography, earth science, and allied subjects. 

490 Field Observation of Severe Local Storms (6)
Multiweek field trip to the Great Plains region to forecast, observe, and document thunderstorms and related phenomena such as lightning, hail, and tornadoes. Trip is preceded by a series of lectures on storm behavior, extreme weather forecasting, and safe chasing techniques.                 
    Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. 

491 Tourism Development (3) 
Discusses how to develop tourism destinations and activities that integrate sustainable economic development, accessibility, and indigenous cultural evolution with minimal impact on the environment. Includes site assessment, financial analysis, market forecasting, and impact assessment. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 261, 262; or permission of the instructor. 

495 Readings and Special Studies in Geography and Earth Science (1-6) 
Assigned special studies in geography and earth science, including readings, research projects, teaching problems, or assignment to an undergraduate class. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson.
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.