Speech impairments range from problems with articulation or voice strength to an inability to speak at all. Among the more common speech impairments encountered at Ball State are stuttering, chronic hoarseness, difficulty in evoking an appropriate word or term, and esophageal speech (resulting from a laryngectomy). Self-expression should be encouraged; however, pressure to speak is not likely to be helpful. Speaking in front of a group can be an agonizing experience for speech-impaired students.



Various communication aids are available for students who cannot speak. Students who are able to type may use portable electronic aids that produce computer printouts, display words on LED screens, or have synthesized audio output. Most Ball State students with speech impairments are able to sign, write, and type.

Tips for Positive Communication

  • Include our disability statement on the course syllabus and repeat it during the first class meeting.
  • Be patient and listen.
  • Do not provide words or finish sentences for a person who stutters or speaks with difficulty; let the person complete his or her thoughts.
  • Give students with communication disabilities the opportunity to participate in class discussions as much as possible.
  • If the course requires oral communication and the student is unable to communicate orally, arrange for alternative methods, such as written communication that might be shared with the class. 
  • Allow students who are unable to communicate orally to use a word processor, sign board, or interpreter in class.
  • If you do not understand what is being said, do not pretend to know; tell the student you do not understand and allow him or her to repeat the communication.

Suggested Classroom Accommodations

  • Written assignments or responses to specific questions that can be shared with the class by someone else reading them aloud are an alternative to oral presentations.
  • For students who choose to participate orally, faculty and class members should be patient, offering encouragement and an opportunity to develop self-confidence in a challenging situation.