The following information provides insight into the research and publications of the faculty within the Fisher Institute of Health and Well-Being. Please contact the Institute or the faculty person involved in the publication directly if you have any questions.
- Min, J., Zhao, Y., Slivka, L., & Wang, Y. (2017). Double burden of diseases worldwide: coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition-related non-communicable chronic diseases. The study examined the scope and variation of the global double burden of diseases and found related socio-demographic factors. The studies looked at different levels of income and their related obesity-undernutrition ratio. Differences were found in obesity versus undernutrition ratios by country income level, age groups and over time, which could be related to an obesogenic environment. Obes Rev. doi:10.1111/obr.12605
- An, R., Xue, H., Wang, L., & Wang, Y. (2017). Projecting the impact of a nationwide school plain water access intervention on childhood obesity: a cost-benefit analysis. This study aimed to project a cost ad benefit of expansion of water access intervention by placing water dispensers in New York school cafeterias to nationwide. The cost of purchase and maintenance of the water fountains compared to what would be saved in overweight/obesity prevented and lifetime direct and indirect medical costs saved. It was found that the New York school-based water access intervention may have a considerable favorable benefit-cost portfolio if adopted nationwide.
Pediatr Obes. doi:10.1111/ijpo.12236
- Min, J., Tan, Z., Abadie, L., Townsend, S., Xue, H., & Wang, Y. (2017). An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mission-X Child Health Promotion Program in the United States. This study examined the effects of the Mission-X: Train Like an Astronaut program on health-related knowledge and behaviors of US participants. There was a pilot intervention in 5 cities with a pre-post comparison of children’s health-related knowledge and behaviors in the US in 2014 and 2015. A 6-week web- and school-based intervention for a healthier lifestyle. It was found that the MX seems effective in improving health behaviors and knowledge of the participating children, which could serve as a model for sustainable global child health promotion program. Am J Health Promot, 890117117723959. doi:10.1177/0890117117723959
- Wang, Y., Yan, A. F., Shi, X., Wang, H., Wang, Z., Gittelsohn, J., & Xu, F. (2017). Child and parental perspectives on diet and physical activity decisions: implications for childhood obesity prevention in China. Asia. This study examined how children and parents in China make eating and physical activity decisions, while considering individual, family, community, social, environmental factors, and collecting parents’ recommendations for interventions to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Children and their parents participated in eight semi-structured focus groups, and three main themes were identified. The themes were: children chose food based on flavor, there were inconsistent standards and practices of school lunch services across schools, and students had limited physical activity time due to academic demand. These findings will help develop family and school-targeted health promotion interventions while considering unique Chinese social and cultural context. Pac J Clin Nutr, 26(5), 888-898. doi:10.6133/apjcn.112016.01
- Tan, Z., Min, J., Xue, H., Wang, W., & Wang, Y. (2017). Parenting practices and overweight status of junior high school students in China: A nationally representative study of 19,487 students from 112 schools. This study examined the level of parental responsiveness and demand for junior high students in China with their weight status, the difference in sociodemographic characteristics, and the effect of parenting and physical activity. The child’s anthropometrics and parental practices were evaluated with a self-administered survey. High responsiveness and demand among Chinese parents were associated with the risk of child overweight and obesity. Prev Med. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.09.014.
- Wu Y, Xue H, Wang H, Su C, Du S, Wang Y. The impact of urbanization on the community food environment in China. The study examined the impact of urbanization on the food environment in China. It utilized and analyzed data over twenty years (1989-2009) of China Health and Nutrition Surveys from 216 different communities using random-effect models. Results found that there was a direct correlation between the urbanicity index and the odds of having fast food restaurants, other indoor restaurants, and free markets within a 30 minute bus ride. Urbanicity was also positively associated with community norms for fast food preferences and consumption and nutrition knowledge. Therefore, urbanization is associated with the food environment in China. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;26(3):504-513. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.032016.09.
- Wang Y, Xue H, Huang Y, Huang L, Zhang D. A Systematic Review of Application and Effectiveness of mHealth Interventions for Obesity and Diabetes Treatment and Self-Management. The systemic search of twenty-four PubMed articles for information on the use of mobile and wireless technologies and wearable devices and their effects on the treatment and management of obesity and diabetes allowed for assessment of the effectiveness and possible recommendations for future use. There were three categories for the interventions: mobile phone text messaging, wearable or portable monitoring devices, and application running on smartphones. Outcomes varied from weight loss and maintenance of blood glucose to behavior changes and patient perceptions. It was found that more than 50% of the studies showed positive outcomes, however, was concluded that there were too many limitations and there is a need for future studies with larger sample sizes, longer interventions, follow-up periods, and more personalized mobile technologies. Adv Nutr. 2017 May 15;8(3):449-462. doi: 10.3945/an.116.014100. Print 2017 May.
- Xue H, Cheng X, Zhang Q, Wang H, Zhang B, Qu W, Wang Y. Temporal growth and spatial distribution of the fast food industry and its relationship with economic development in China - 2005-2012. This study used government-reported longitudinal data from 21 provinces in China to examine the growth in fast food and obesity with the spatial distribution and key social economic factors. A cross-sectional and longitudinal spatial analysis was used to examine associations with macroeconomic conditions, population dynamics, and growth and distributional changes of the industry. The results showed that the fast food industry is highly correlated with GDP and per capita disposable income for urban residents, moderately correlated with urban population, and not correlated with increase of population size. Therefore, the rapid growth of fast food in China was closely related to economic growth and improving the food environment should be considered in local economic development planning. Prev Med. 2017 Sep;102:79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.07.002. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
- An R, Yang Y, Hoschke A, Xue H, Wang Y. Influence of neighborhood safety on childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. A literature search of 22 cohort studies from PubMed and Google Scholar from 7 different countries examined the relationship with obesity and unsafe neighborhoods. The results from the meta-analysis were a reduction in physical activity of .13 h/week, a statistically significant gain in BMI, but no change in childhood overweight/obesity risk. Therefore, current research finds that influence of neighborhood safety on childhood obesity is limited, but could be from measurement error and valid neighborhood safety measures should be adopted for future studies. Obes Rev. 2017 Jul 14. doi: 10.1111/obr.12585. [Epub ahead of print]
- Min J, Xue H, Wang V, Li M, Wang Y. Are single children more likely to be overweight or obese than those with siblings? The influence of China’s one-child policy on childhood obesity. This study examined the influence of single-child families and the one-child policy on the child’s weight status and related health behaviors. China Health and Nutrition Survey were cross-sectionally analyzed and it was found that single-child families had higher levels of parental education, household income and urban residence than families with more than two children. Compared to the children with siblings, single children were more likely to be OWB and the association became stronger overtime. While the single children had less recreational screen time, they had more excess total energy intake. The results showed that being a single child is four times more likely to be overweight/obese than those who have siblings and China;s one-child policy could have contributed, and obesity intervention programs may need to be implemented to cancel the influence of the one-child policy in China. Prev Med. 2017 Jul 21;103:8-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.07.018. [Epub ahead of print]
- Wang L, Southerland J, Wang K, Bailey BA, Alamian A, Stevens MA, Wang Y. Ethnic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Adults in California, the United States. This study examined differences in risk factors for obesity among Whites, Latinos, Asians, and African Americans among 42,935 adults. With an unbiased representation of the California population, the data was analyzed to examine the differences in risk factors. Large ethnic disparities were found and differences in risk factors were also observed. Whites’ risk factors were gender, age, physical activity, smoking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake, while Latinos’ were age, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake. Asians’ were age, binge drinking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake, and African Americans were gender, physical activity, smoking, binge drinking, and diabetes medicine intake. It was also found that females that were African Americans were more likely to be obese than White females. Overall, race/ethnicity should be considered in developing obesity prevention strategies. J Obes. 2017;2017:2427483. doi: 10.1155/2017/2427483. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
- Wang L, Collins C, Ratliff M, Xie B, Wang Y. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks. This study examined the effects of breastfeeding and the duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. The study of 1234 children were analyzed and child heright and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s prevalence of breastfeeding was low and resulted in an obesity rate from 24 months to grade 6.The results showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% and more than 6 months was associated with a decreased risk of 42%. Therefore, breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Child Obes. 2017 Jun;13(3):197-204. doi: 10.1089/chi.2016.0210. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
- Zhang Q, Liu R, Diggs, LA, Wang Y, Ling L. Does acculturation affect the dietary intakes and body weight status of children of immigrants in the U.S. and other developed countries? A systematic review. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and obesity with children of immigrants who have at least one foreign-born parent. Most of the studies were from the US and used BMI or overweight/obesity prevalence as the outcome variable. Some studies also used dietary intake and standardized acculturation, but most used generation, duration of residency in host country and language as measures of acculturation. It was found that acculturation and outcomes vary between host and origin countries, which suggest different culture background, interact with host countries. Diet behaviors and body weight status are influenced by this. Ethn Health. 2017 Apr 13:1-21. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2017.1315365. [Epub ahead of print]
Wang, L, Mamudu, HM, Collins, C, Wang, Y. High prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. This is a Guest Editorial Comment on: Xi B, Liang Y, Liu Y, et al. Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years: data from 68 low-income and middle-income countries. Ann Transl Med. 2017 May; 5(Suppl 1): S4. doi: 10.21037/atm.2017.03.37.
Kang, Y, Wang, Y, Zhang, D, Zhow, L. The public’s opinions on a new school meals policy for childhood obesity prevention in the U.S.: A social media analytics approach. This study investigates the public's opinions on a new school meals policy for childhood obesity prevention in the US using 14,317 relevant tweets from 11,715 users since the national policy enactment on Feb 9, 2010 through Dec 31, 2015. We applied opinion mining techniques to classify tweets into positive, negative, and neutral categories, and conducted content analysis. There were more negative tweets about the school meals policy than positive ones (16.8% vs. 12.9%), in addition to neutral tweets (70.3%). The main targets for negative opinions were campaign and food, and those for positive opinions were policy and health benefits. Females (62.5%) were more involved than males (37.5%), and people in the South and the West regions (64.2%) engaged themselves more than people in the Northeast and the Midwest (35.8%) of the US. The findings discovered interesting gender and regional differences in the public's opinions for policy improvement. Int J Med Inform. 2017 Jul;103:83-88. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2017.04.013. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
Min, J, Wang, VH, Xue, H, Mi, J, Wang, Y. Maternal perception of child overweight status and its association with weight related parenting practices, their children’s health behaviors and weight change in China. This study examined the maternal perception of her child’s weight status, its association with demographics, subsequent weight related parenting practices, the child’s health behaviors and weight change using data from 816 6-18 years old children during 2004-2011 in China Health and Nutrition Surveys. Compared to mothers who viewed their children as normal weight, mothers who thought their children were overweight were more likely to encourage their children to increase their physical activity and to diet. However, children perceived as overweight by their mothers were more likely to gain more weight during follow-up than children perceived by their mothers as normal weight. In China, mothers who perceive their child as overweight are more likely to have better parenting practice, but this encouragement does not seem to improve child’s health behaviors and weight status. Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jun 6:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S1368980017001033.
Wang Y, Min J, Khuri J, Li M. A Systematic Examination of the Association between Parental and Child Obesity across Countries. This systematic examination and meta-analysis examined the strength and variation of the P-C association in obesity and to identify factors that may influence this association. Thirty-two studies from 21 countries in PubMed published between January 2000 and July 2015 were analyzed. P-C obesity had a strong association (pooled OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 2.09, 2.36). Stronger associations were shown in older children than in younger children, in both parents than in father only or mother only, in parental obesity and child obesity than in parental and child overweight, and in high-income countries than in middle-income countries. Results suggest that families and parents should be a key target for obesity intervention efforts. Adv Nutr. 2017 May 15;8(3):436-448
Wang Y, Xue H, Huang L, Zhang D. A Systematic Review of Application and Effectiveness of mHealth Interventions for Obesity and Diabetes Treatment and Self-Management. We systematically searched PubMed for mHealth-related studies on diabetes and obesity treatment and management published during 2000–2016 and twenty-four studies were analyzed. The mHealth interventions were categorized into 1) mobile phone text messaging, 2) wearable/portable monitoring devices, and 3) applications running on smartphones. Primary outcomes included weight loss or maintenance and blood glucose reduction. More than 50% of studies reported positive effects of interventions based on primary outcomes. However, most studies included small samples and short intervention periods and did not use rigorous data collection or analytic approaches. Adv Nutr. 2017 May 15;8(3):449-462.
- Li M, Xue H, Wang W, Wang Y; Parental Expectations and Child Screen and Academic Sedentary Behaviors in China. Using data from 19,487 Chinese middle school students in 2013-2014, we studied sociodemographic patterns of parental expectations for academic performance, terminal degree, etc. for their children, and how these expectations influence students’ screen-based and academic-related sedentary behaviors through parenting control practices. Chinese students spent 0.96 (SD=1.44) hours/day on TV, 0.56 (SD=1.20) on Internet use, and 2.79 (SD=2.07) on homework. Children experiencing higher parental expectations spent more time on homework but less time on TV/Internet, partially explained by stricter parental homework and screen control. High parental expectations suppress screen use but promote academic-related sedentary behaviors for Chinese children. Am J Prev Med. 2017 May;52(5):680-689.
- Mary T. Imboden; Ann M. Swartz; Holmes W. Finch; Matthew P. Harber; Leonard A. Kaminsky; Reference standards for lean mass measures using GE dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in Caucasian adults. Body composition assessments commonly focus predominantly on fat mass, however lean mass (LM) measurements also provide useful information regarding clinical and nutritional status. LM measurements help predict health outcomes and diagnose sarcopenia, which has been associated with frailty. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established technique used in clinical and research settings to assess body composition including total and regional LM. Currently, there are no reference values available that were derived from GE-Healthcare DXA systems directly for US adults for LM, LM index (LMI), percent LM (%LM), and appendicular lean mass index (ALMI) and it is known that whole-body and regional LM measures differ by DXA manufacturer. Published: April 20, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176161
- Mary T. Imboden, Whitney A. Welch, Ann M. Swartz, Alexander H. K. Montoye, Holmes W. Finch, Matthew P. Harber, Leonard A. Kaminsky; Reference standards for body fat measures using GE dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in Caucasian adults. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established technique for the measurement of body composition. Reference values for these variables, particularly those related to fat mass, are necessary for interpretation and accurate classification of those at risk for obesity-related health complications and in need of lifestyle modifications (diet, physical activity, etc.). Currently, there are no reference values available for GE-Healthcare DXA systems and it is known that whole-body and regional fat mass measures differ by DXA manufacturer. Published: April 20, 2017 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176161
- Jia P, Cheng X, Xue H, Wang Y.; Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) data and methods in obesity-related research. We systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research, reviewing 121 studies from PubMed published before 20 May 2016. The primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators. We found high spatial heterogeneity in obesity prevalence/risk and obesogenic environmental factors. Existing findings regarding built environment are more robust than those regarding food environment. More and better GIS data and more friendly analysis methods are needed to expand future GIS applications in obesity-related research. Obes Rev. 2017 Apr;18(4):400-411.
- Carrillo-Larco RM; Bernabe-Ortiz A; Miranda JJ; Xue H; Wang Y. The Role of Perceived Health Status in Children’s Weight Changes: A Prospective Cohort of Peruvian School-Aged Children. The aim of the study was to estimate the association between maternal perception of their child’s health status and (mis)classification of their child’s actual weight with future weight change. We present cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from the Peruvian younger cohort of the Young Lives Study. For cross-sectional analysis, the exposure was maternal perception of child health status (better, same or worse); the outcome was underestimation or overestimation of the child’s actual weight. Mothers were asked about their perception of their child’s weight (same, lighter or heavier than other children). Actual weight status was defined with IOTF BMI cut-off points. For longitudinal analysis, the exposure was (mis)classification of the child’s actual weight; the outcome was the standardized mean difference between follow-up and baseline BMI. A Generalized Linear Model with Poisson family and log-link was used to report the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cross-sectional analyses. A Linear Regression Model was used to report the longitudinal analysis as coefficient estimates (β) and 95% CI. Normal weight children who were perceived as more healthy than other children were more likely to have their weight overestimated (PR = 2.06); conversely, those who were perceived as less healthy than other children were more likely to have their weight underestimated (PR = 2.17). Mean follow-up time was 2.6 (SD: 0.3) years. Overall, underweight children whose weight was overestimated were more likely to gain BMI (β = 0.44); whilst overweight children whose weight was considered to be the same of their peers (β = -0.55), and those considered to be lighter than other children (β = -0.87), lost BMI. Maternal perception of the child’s health status seems to influence both overestimation and underestimation of the child’s actual weight status. Such weight (mis)perception may influence future BMI.
- Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco; Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz; J. Jaime Miranda; Hong Xue; Youfa Wang; Children’s weight changes according to maternal perception of the child’s weight and health: A prospective cohort of Peruvian children. Published: April 19, 2017. The aim of the study was to estimate the association between maternal perception of their child’s health status and (mis)classification of their child’s actual weight with future weight change. We present cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from the Peruvian younger cohort of the Young Lives Study. For cross-sectional analysis, the exposure was maternal perception of child health status (better, same or worse); the outcome was underestimation or overestimation of the child’s actual weight. Mothers were asked about their perception of their child’s weight (same, lighter or heavier than other children). Actual weight status was defined with IOTF BMI cut-off points. For longitudinal analysis, the exposure was (mis)classification of the child’s actual weight; the outcome was the standardized mean difference between follow-up and baseline BMI. A Generalized Linear Model with Poisson family and log-link was used to report the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cross-sectional analyses. A Linear Regression Model was used to report the longitudinal analysis as coefficient estimates (β) and 95% CI. Normal weight children who were perceived as more healthy than other children were more likely to have their weight overestimated (PR = 2.06); conversely, those who were perceived as less healthy than other children were more likely to have their weight underestimated (PR = 2.17). Mean follow-up time was 2.6 (SD: 0.3) years. Overall, underweight children whose weight was overestimated were more likely to gain BMI (β = 0.44); whilst overweight children whose weight was considered to be the same of their peers (β = -0.55), and those considered to be lighter than other children (β = -0.87), lost BMI. Maternal perception of the child’s health status seems to influence both overestimation and underestimation of the child’s actual weight status. Such weight (mis)perception may influence future BMI.
- P Jia, H Xue, J Zhang and Y Wang. Time Trend and Demographic and Geographic Disparities in Childhood Obesity Prevalence in China—Evidence from Twenty Years of Longitudinal Data. This study examined the secular trends and geographic variation in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-aged children across China using data from children aged 6–17 surveyed in China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 (n = 2712) to 2011 (n = 1054). Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence increased from 11.7% to 25.2% during 1991–2011. The urban-rural gap in overweight and obesity prevalence widened; overweight and obesity prevalence in boys was higher and increased faster than in girls, especially in an urban setting; and geographic variation was observed with faster increases in more economically developed east, central and northeast regions than in the less developed west. The findings added more nuances to the picture of temporal changes in overweight and obesity prevalence among Chinese children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 369.
- Yan Y, Hou D, Zhao X, Liu J, Cheng H, Wang Y, Mi J; Childhood Adiposity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adulthood. We examined the association of childhood adiposity and change in adiposity status from childhood to adulthood with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and abnormal liver enzyme levels in adulthood using a population-based cohort of 1350 subjects aged 6 to 18 years in 1987 and aged 28-45 years in 2010 and 2014. Overweight or obese children were more likely to have adult NAFLD (males: OR = 2.49 for BMI). Subjects who were obese in adulthood, irrespective of their childhood adiposity status, were more likely to have NAFLD in adulthood. Overweight or obese children are more likely to have NAFLD in adulthood. However, the risk associated with increased weight during childhood can be mitigated by becoming non-obese in adulthood. Pediatrics 2017 Mar 29. pii: e20162738.
Forman DE, Arena R, Boxer R, Dolansky MA, Eng JJ, Fleg JL, Haykowsky M, Jahangir A, Kaminsky LA, Kitzman DW, Lewis EF, Myers J, Reeves GR, Shen WK; Prioritizing Functional Capacity as a Principal End Point for Therapies Oriented to Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association. Adults are living longer, and cardiovascular disease is endemic in the growing population of older adults who are surviving into old age. Functional capacity is a key metric in this population, both for the perspective it provides on aggregate health and as a vital goal of care. Whereas cardiorespiratory function has long been applied by cardiologists as a measure of function that depended primarily on cardiac physiology, multiple other factors also contribute, usually with increasing bearing as age advances. Comorbidity, inflammation, mitochondrial metabolism, cognition, balance, and sleep are among the constellation of factors that bear on cardiorespiratory function and that become intricately entwined with cardiovascular health in old age. This statement reviews the essential physiology underlying functional capacity on systemic, organ, and cellular levels, as well as critical clinical skills to measure multiple realms of function (eg, aerobic, strength, balance, and even cognition) that are particularly relevant for older patients. Clinical therapeutic perspectives and patient perspectives are enumerated to clarify challenges and opportunities across the caregiving spectrum, including patients who are hospitalized, those managed in routine office settings, and those in skilled nursing facilities. Overall, this scientific statement provides practical recommendations and vital conceptual insights. 2017;135:00–00. DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000483
- P. Jia,1† X. Cheng,2† H. Xue3 and Y. Wang3,4; Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) data and methods in obesity-related research. Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria.We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators. We found high spatial heterogeneity in obesity prevalence/risk and obesogenic environmental factors. Also, study design and characteristics varied considerably across studies because of lack of established guidance and protocols in the field, which may also have contributed to the mixed findings about environmental impacts on obesity. Existing findings regarding built environment are more robust than those regarding food environment.Applications of GIS data/methods in obesity research are still limited, and related research faces many challenges. More and better GIS data and more friendly analysis methods are needed to expand future GIS applications in obesity-related research. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 369; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040369
- Jia P, Xue H, Zhang J and Wang Y.; Time Trend and Demographic and Geographic Disparities in Childhood Obesity Prevalence in China—Evidence from Twenty Years of Longitudinal Data. This study examined the secular trends and geographic variation in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-aged children across China using data from children aged 6–17 surveyed in China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 (n = 2712) to 2011 (n = 1054). Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence increased from 11.7% to 25.2% during 1991–2011. The urban-rural gap in overweight and obesity prevalence widened; overweight and obesity prevalence in boys was higher and increased faster than in girls, especially in an urban setting; and geographic variation was observed with faster increases in more economically developed east, central and northeast regions than in the less developed west. The findings added more nuances to the picture of temporal changes in overweight and obesity prevalence among Chinese children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 369.
- Wudeneh Mulugeta, Myron Glick, Jungwon Min, Hong Xue, Michael F. Noe, Youfa Wang. Longitudinal Changes and High-Risk Subgroups for Obesity and Overweight/Obesity Among Refugees in Buffalo, NY, 2004–2014. J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.This study examine longitudinal changes in obesity and overweight/obesity rates among resettled refugees and identify high-risk subgroups using data from 818 children (2–18 years) and 1055 adults (≥19 years) in a refugee clinic in Buffalo, NY, during 2004–2014. Obesity (8.7 to 12.7%) and overweight/obesity (16.9 to 26.7%) rates increased among children over 4.5 years (p < 0.01). Over 3.9 years, overweight/obesity rates increased in men (39.6 to 58.6%, p < 0.01) and women (55.1 to 73.5%, p < 0.01), exceeding the prevalence of overweight/obesity of 65.8% in US-born women. Obesity and overweight/obesity rates increased among refugees, but significant variations existed. African origin, baseline weight, and longer duration of stay in the USA were risk factors. 2017 Mar 31. [Epub ahead of print]
- Romieu I1, Dossus L2, Barquera S3, Blottière HM4, Franks PW5, Gunter M2,Hwalla N6, Hursting SD7, Leitzmann M8, Margetts B9, Nishida C10,Potischman N11, Seidell J12, Stepien M2, Wang Y13, Westerterp K14,Winichagoon P15, Wiseman M16, Willett WC17;IARC working group on Energy Balance and Obesity: Energy balance and obesity: what are the main drivers? Cancer Causes Control. 2017 Mar;28(3):247-258. In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). The quality of the diet may exert its effect on energy balance through complex hormonal and neurological pathways that influence satiety and possibly through other mechanisms. The food environment, marketing of unhealthy foods and urbanization, and reduction in sedentary behaviors and physical activity play important roles. Most of the evidence comes from High-Income Countries, and more research is needed in LMICs. Cancer Causes Control. 2017 Mar;28(3):247-258. doi: 10.1007/s10552-017-0869-z. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
- Harber, M.P., Kaminsky, L.A., Arena, R., Blair, S.N., Franklin, B.A., Myers, J., Ross, R. Impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on all-cause and disease-specific mortality: Advances since 2009. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, published ahead of print, Mar 9, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2017.03.001.
- Kaminsky, L.A., Imboden, M.T., Ross, A., Myers, J. (2017). Reference standards for cardiorespiratory fitness measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing using cycle ergometry: Data from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry). Mayo Clin Proc. 92:228-233, 2017.
- Wang H1, Xue H2, Du S3, Zhang J1, Wang Y2, Zhang B1. Time trends and factors in body mass index and obesity among children in China: 1997 to 2011. Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Feb 27. [Epub ahead of print] We analyzed data collected from children 7-17 years old from the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1997-2011 to explore Chinese children’s BMI distribution and its related factors. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in boys and girls between 1997-2011, from 6.5% to 15.5% in boys and from 4.6% to 10.4% in girls. Energy intake and parents’ BMI levels had a positive association with children’s BMI. Per capita income was positively associated with changes in BMI only at the upper percentiles of the BMI distributions in boys. Increased physical activity was associated with decreased BMI in girls.
- An R1, Liu G2, Khan N1, Yan H1, Wang Y3. Dietary Habits and Cognitive Impairment Risk Among Oldest-Old Chinese. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2017 Feb 10. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbw170. [Epub ahead of print] Using data collected from 4749 adults aged 80 or older from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, we studied the relationship between dietary habits and cognitive impairment onset during follow-up period after adjusting for various time-variant and time-invariant individual characteristics. Compared with rare/never consuming group, participants consuming fruit, vegetables, meat, and soybean-derived products almost every day were 17~25% less likely to develop cognitive impairment during follow-up, while participants consuming sugar almost every day were 17% more likely to develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. Future work is warranted to inform public nutrition practices aiming at preventing cognitive decline among the oldest-old Chinese population.
- Williams, M., Kaminsky, L.A. Healthy Lifestyle Medicine in the Traditional Healthcare Environment Primary Care and Cardiac Rehabilitation, Prog Cardiovasc Dis, published ahead of print, Feb 2, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2017.01.008.
- Ozemek, C., Whaley, M.H., Finch, W.H., Kaminsky, L.A. Maximal heart rate declines linearly with age, independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Eur. J. Sci. .Sport Sci. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2016.1275042, 2017.
- Huang T1, Beaty T2, Li J3, Liu H4, Zhao W4, Wang Y3. Association between dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in Chinese child twins. Br J Nutr. 2017 Jan;117(2):230-236. This study estimated heritability of insulin resistance (IR) measures and the related genetic correlations with fat intake, and tested whether dietary fat intake modifies the genetic influence on type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related traits using data collected from 622 twins aged 7–15 years (311 pairs) in south-eastern China. Heritabilities of dietary fat intake, fasting glucose and insulin were estimated to be 52, 70 and 70 %, respectively. More than 70% of the phenotypic correlations between dietary fat and insulin, glucose, Homa-IR and the Quicki index appeared to be mediated by shared genetic influence. Dietary fat significantly modified additive genetic effects on these quantitative traits associated with T2D.
- Wang Y1, Wang L2, Qu W3. New national data show alarming increase in obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases in China. New national data show obvious improvement in Chinese people’s nutritional status including increased height and reduced undernutrition problems, but also an alarming increase in obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases(NCDs) during the past decade. Obesity prevalence and NCDs mortality and morbidity have increased steadily since 2002, whereas for some diseases such as diabetes the increase is more dramatic. In 2012, prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was 25.2 and 9.7%, respectively, compared with 18.8 and 2.6% in 2002, respectively. Between 1993 and 2003, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence increased from 31.4 to 50.0%. Timely national efforts and programs are needed to fight the growing NCD epidemic in China. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan;71(1):149-150. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.171. Epub 2016 Oct 5.