Undergraduate Course Catalog

Geography

G. Venugopal, Chairperson 

Geography as a science is distinguished by the spatial approach to understanding the mechanisms of the world’s physical and human environments and the linkages between them. Human geography is specifically concerned with the spatial aspects of human activities, while physical geography examines the spatial processes explaining the Earth’s physical environment. Both human and physical geographers develop skills in cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and iremote sensing. To meet society’s needs for greater geographic understanding in the twenty-first century, the Department of Geography offers four distinct options within the major.

  • Option 1. Comprehensive. This option is attractive to students desiring a broad education in either or both human and physical geography. Many Option 1 students elect to continue their studies at the graduate level.
  • Option 2. Travel and tourism. This option provides students the broad knowledge, the analytical skills, and the practical experience that are beneficial for successful careers in the travel/tourism industry. The sequence of specialized courses addresses the spatial, organizational, social and economic aspects of travel/tourism growth and development, regions, as well as the interaction between the tourist and the destination. The program’s graduates are in demand in varied travel industry fields including retail travel, tour operations, meetings and conventions, transportation and hospitality companies, along with governmental, corporate and community organizations involved in travel/tourism promotion and development. 
  • Option 3. GIScience. This option is a technical specialization for students interested in solving social and environmental problems through advanced spatial information technology. Students learn how to visualize information in ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends by using computer software for cartography, remote sensing, and GIS. Cartography is the art and science of making maps; remote sensing provides a means to capture visual and digital information about the earth through airborne cameras and advanced electronic spaceborne sensors; a geographic information system is a set of computer tools for analyzing spatial data. Geographic information processing and mapping systems are used by many public and private organizations worldwide and students graduating with these technical skills are in great demand. 
  • Option 4. Meteorology and climatology. This option is designed for students with strong interests in weather and climate. The approach is to employ the general principles of science in systematic investigations of earth-atmosphere system and subsystem dynamics and to train students in the use of technology (satellites, radar, automated weather observations, and numerical weather prediction) to analyze these systems on a number of spatial and temporal scales. Two tracks have been developed within Option 4 to address a variety of student career interests within the fields of operational meteorology and climatology. The general track is intended for students seeking positions in which knowledge of operational meteorology and climatology is somewhat peripheral in satisfying primary task objectives. Examples include emergency management, environmental analysis, and transportation planning. Meteorology and climatology—professional meets American Meteorological Society (AMS) qualifications for the title “meteorologist,” and Federal Civil Service requirements (GS 1340) for employment by the National Weather Service (NWS).

The department also offers minors in geography, GIScience, meteorology and climatology and travel and tourism.


MAJOR IN GEOGRAPHY, 51-69 hours

Recommended minors for all options include anthropology, history, and natural resources and environmental management.

PREFIX 

NO    

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

Core requirements, 15 hours

GEOG




101
150
240
250
265

Erth Sea Sky
Global Geog
Map Reading
Spat Methods
Intro G I S

3
3
3
3
3


15 hrs

Complete one option
Option 1: Comprehensive, 36 hours

GEOG





120
121
230
340
342
470

Economic Geo
Cultural Env
Elem Meteor
Cart Vis 1
Intr Rem Sen
World Pol Ge

3
3
3
3
3
3

6 hours from

GEOG




330
331
334
344
450

Wea Analysis (3)
Glob Climate (3)
Atmos Hazard (3)
Adv GIS Anly (3)
Meso Meteor (3)





6

6 hours from

GEOG




261
320
321
323
423

Tourism Syst (3)
Ethnic Geog (3)
Urban Geog (3)
Tourism Food (3)
Population (3)





6

6 hours from

GEOG






350
351
352
353
354
356
357

U S Canada (3)
Lat Am Carib (3)
Africa (3)
Geog Indiana (3)
Asia (3)
Russ Neigh (3)
Europe (3)







6


51 hrs
Minors in related fields are recommended.

Option 2: Travel and tourism, 42 hours

GEOG






121
261
262
369
or
479
491

Cultural Env
Tourism Syst
Tourism Reg
Prof Exp (3-6)

Pract Exp (3-6)
Tourism Dvlp

3
3
3


3
3

12 hours from

GEOG

FCSFN




NREM
MGT

MKG

360
460
250
or
363
or
476
371
200
or
200

Tour Meet Mn (3)
Trav Consult (3)
Lodging (3)

Instit Admin (3)

Event Mgt (3)
Outd Rec Soc (3)
Mngnt Prin (3)

Fundamentals (3)











12

6 hours from

GEOG







350
351
352
353
354
356
357
480

U S Canada (3)
Lat Am Carib (3)
Africa (3)
Geog Indiana (3)
Asia (3)
Russ Neigh (3)
Europe (3)
D A Field St (3)








6

9 hours from

GEOG










120
230
320
321
323
331
334
340
423
470
480

Economic Geo (3)
Elem Meteor (3)
Ethnic Geog (3)
Urban Geog (3)
Tourism Food (3)
Glob Climate (3)
Atmos Hazard (3)
Cart Vis 1 (3)
Population (3)
World Pol Ge (3)
D A Field St (3)











9


57 hrs
Recommended minors for option 2 include
journalism, public relations, modern languages
and classics, food management, hospitality
management, natural resources and
environmental management, and any
business or area studies.

Option 3: GIScience, 36-39 hours

GEOG







340
341
342
343
344
369
or
479

Cart Vis 1
Cart Vis 2
Intr Rem Sen
Adv Rem Sens
Adv GIS Anly
Prof Exp (3-6)

Pract Exp (3-6)

3
3
3
3
3


3-6

6 hours from

GEOG


 

443
444
445
448

Sem Rem Sen (3)
Adv Cart Vis (3)
GIS App Desg (3)
GIS Sys Desg (3)




6

6 hours from

GEOG









120
121
230
320
321
330
331
334
423
470

Economic Geo (3)
Cultural Env (3)
Elem Meteor (3)
Ethnic Geog (3)
Urban Geog (3)
Wea Analysis (3)
Glob Climate (3)
Atmos Hazard (3)
Population (3)
World Pol Ge (3)










6

6 hours from

GEOG






 

350
351
352
353
354
356
357

U S Canada (3)
Lat Am Carib (3)
Africa (3)
Geog Indiana (3)
Asia (3)
Russ Neigh (3)
Europe (3)







6


51-54 hrs
Recommended minors for option 3 include computer science, geology, mathematics, urban planning, biology, and natural resources and environmental management.

Option 4: Meteorology and climatology -
general, 36-39 hours

GEOG







230
330
331
332
334
344
350
450

Elem Meteor
Wea Analysis
Glob Climate
Clim Change
Atmos Hazard
Adv GIS Anly
U S Canada
Meso Meteor

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

6-9 hours from
GEOG





351
352
354
356
357
490
Lat Am Carib (3)
Africa (3)
Asia (3)
Russ Neigh (3)
Europe (3)
F Obs Se L S (6)






6-9

6 hours from

GEOG








340
341
342
343
410
435
443
445
448

Cart Vis 1 (3)
Cart Vis 2 (3)
Intr Rem Sen (3)
Adv Rem Sens (3)
Brdcst Meteor (3)
SatRad Meteo (3)
Sem Rem Sen (3)
GIS App Desg (3)
GIS Sys Desg (3)









6


51-54 hrs

For students intending on careers with either the National Weather Service or as broadcast meteorologists that wish to qualify for the American Meteorological Society Certified Broadcast Meteorologist (CBM) designation, the following option is required:
Meteorology and climatology – professional,
51-54 hours

GEOG












230
330
331
332
334
344
350
425
435
447
449
450
451

Elem Meteor
Wea Analysis
Glob Climate
Clim Change
Atmos Hazard
Adv GIS Anly
U S Canada
Phys Meteor
SatRad Meteo
Thermo Meteo
Synop Meteor
Meso Meteor
Dynamic Mete

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

6-9 hours from
GEOG





351
352
354
356
357
490
Lat Am Carib (3)
Africa (3)
Asia (3)
Russ Neigh (3)
Europe (3)
F Obs Se L S (6)






6-9

6 hours from

GEOG







340
341
342
343
410
443
445
448

Cart Vis 1 (3)
Cart Vis 2 (3)
Intr Rem Sen (3)
Adv Rem Sens (3)
Brdcst Meteor (3)
Sem Rem Sen (3)
GIS App Desg (3)
GIS Sys Desg (3)








6


66-69 hrs
PHYCS 120 and 122, MATHS 165 and 166 required as prerequisite. Differential equations and another related science course are required for civil service employment. Additional course work in the basic sciences such as mathematics, physics, and computer science is encouraged. Recommended minors for option 4 include natural resources and environmental management, telecommunications, and journalism.


MINOR IN GEOGRAPHY, 21 hours

PREFIX 

NO    

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

GEOG





101
120
121
150
240
265

Erth Sea Sky
Economic Geo
Cultural Env
Global Geog
Map Reading
Intro G I S

3
3
3
3
3
3

3 hours from approved 200-level
and above GEOG electives


3

21 hrs
Not open to geography majors.


MINOR IN GIScience, 21 hours

PREFIX 

NO    

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

Core requirements, 9 hours

GEOG


265
340
342

Intro G I S
Cart Vis 1
Intr Rem Sen

3
3
3


9 hrs
12 hours from

GEOG






341
343
344
443
444
445
448

Cart Vis 2 (3)
Adv Rem Sens (3)
Adv GIS Anly (3)
Sem Rem Sen (3)
Adv Cart Vis (3)
GIS App Desg (3)
GIS Sys Desg (3)







12


21 hrs
Not open to geography option 3 majors.


MINOR IN METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY, 15 hours

PREFIX 

NO    

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

GEOG


101
230
330

Erth Sea Sky
Elem Meteor
Wea Analysis

3
3
3

3 hours from

GEOG

331
332

Glob Climate (3)
Clim Change (3)


3

3 hours from

GEOG



410
435
449
450

Brdcst Meteor (3)
SatRad Meteo (3)
Synop Meteor (3)
Meso Meteor (3)




3


15 hrs
Not open to geography option 4 majors.

 
MINOR IN TRAVEL AND TOURISM, 21 hours

PREFIX 

NO    

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

GEOG





121
261
262
360
460
491

Cultural Env
Tourism Syst
Tourism Reg
Tour Meet Mn
Trav Consult
Tourism Dvlp

3
3
3
3
3
3

3 hours from approved 200-level or above GEOG electives


3


21 hrs
Not open to geography option 2 majors.


TEACHER EDUCATION

TEACHING MAJOR IN SOCIAL STUDIES, 57-66 hours

(See Teaching Major in Social Studies, College of Sciences and Humanities, for total requirements for this area.)

Geography area, 15 hours

PREFIX 

NO    

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

GEOG



120
150
240
265

Economic Geo
Global Geog
Map Reading
Intro G I S

3
3
3
3

3 hours from

GEOG












321
340
342
344
350
351
352
353
354
356
357
423
470

Urban Geog (3)
Cart Vis 1 (3)
Intr Rem Sen (3)
Adv GIS Anly (3)
U S Canada (3)
Lat Am Carib (3)
Africa (3)
Geog Indiana (3)
Asia (3)
Russ Neigh (3)
Europe (3)
Population (3)
World Pol Ge (3)













3


15 hrs


SCIENCE TEACHING MAJORS

(See Science, College of Sciences and Humanities, for the teaching major in Earth/Space Science.)


CERTIFICATE IN GIScience, 21 hours

PREFIX 

NO    

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

GEOG



240
265
340
342

Map Reading
Intro G I S
Cart Vis 1
Intr Rem Sen

3
3
3
3

9 hours from

GEOG





343
344
443
444
445
448

Adv Rem Sens (3)
Adv GIS Anly (3)
Sem Rem Sen (3)
Adv Cart Vis (3)
GIS App Desg (3)
GIS Sys Desg (3)






9


21 hrs
Students who select GEOG 444 should take GEOG 341 to meet the prerequisite.

GEOGRAPHY (GEOG)

101 Earth, Sea, and Sky: A Geographic View. (3)
Selected aspects of the physical environment and their relationship to human occupancy of the earth. Regularly scheduled laboratory.

120 Economic Geographies of Globalization. (3)
A systematic approach to economic issues emphasizing local, regional, national, and global economic developments in the geographic setting.

121 Geography of the Cultural Environment. (3)
Utilizes qualitative methods to investigate relationships between human culture and the environment. Spatial processes that bring about cultural diversity and change are stressed as well as the role of human activity in producing cultural landscapes. The formation of cultural landscapes over time and the impacts of globalization are emphasized.

150 Global Geography. (3)
A basic survey course emphasizing geographic facts and interdependencies between the developed and developing world. Particular emphasis is given to physical and social environmental interdependencies.

230 Elementary Meteorology. (3)
Introductory presentation of basic meteorological processes with a focus on applying theory to the analysis and forecasting of local weather conditions.

240 Map Reading and Graphics. (3)
A non-technical approach to the study and making of maps. Introduction to the fundamentals of map design and construction as well as techniques for map analysis. A commercial graphics software is used to create general purpose maps for the visualization and analysis of geospatial information.

250 Spatial Analytical Methods in Geography. (3)
Serves as a basic introduction to the quantitative methods employed by geographers to describe, analyze and interpret geospatial datasets. Lecture topics will include basic descriptive statistics, hypothesis formulation and testing, sampling strategies, geographical association and correlation analysis, regression, and a multivariate statistics overview. 
    Prerequisite: MATHS 125 or higher. 
    Open only to geography majors and minors.

261 Tourism Systems. (3)
Surveys the history, components, and spatial structure of travel and tourism as a socioeconomic phenomenon and as an industry. Also examines its institutional organization, the motivations and flows of travelers, and global and local interactions and implications.

262 Tourism Regions. (3)
Examines locational patterns of various forms of tourism and the main geographic characteristics of these destinations. Analyzes spatial and temporal models and flows and their economic, social, cultural, and environmental impacts through selected detailed case studies.

265 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. (3)
Fundamentals of geographic information systems (GIS). How to visualize information in ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends not visible in other software systems. Develop working knowledge of the full capabilities of GIS technology.

299X Experimental/Developmental Topics. (1-6)
Topics relevant to the discipline. Course titles will be announced before each semester. 
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.

320 Ethnic Geographies. (3)
A systematic upper division course which introduces the geographical aspects of United States ethnicity, particularly with regard to the post-1965 ethnic groups from Latin America and Asia. Specific attention is given to concepts of immigration theory, identity, race, transnationality, and community formation within the larger context of human geography. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 101.

321 Urban Geography. (3)
Distribution, classification, structure, and function of urban centers. Special attention is given to the geographic conditions affecting urban development and growth.

323 Tourism and Geography of Food. (3)
Surveys the origin, spatial diffusion, and cultural ecology of food crops and agriculture in the context of tourism and travel. Examines the globalization of regional foods as a cultural commodity and agricultural landscapes as tourist attractions.

330 Weather Analysis. (3)
Presentation and practice of synoptic- and meso-scale diagnostic analysis techniques, including a review of satellite and radar remote sensing systems and image interpretation. Introduction to numerical weather prediction. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 230.

331 Global Climatology. (3)
Introduction to the dynamics of the global climate system. Emphasizes the physical processes that force spatial variability in climate, and the feedback mechanisms associated with global teleconnections and climate change. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 230.

332 Climate Change and Modification. (3)
Study of the variability of climate over time and space, and factors involved. Focuses on past climates, modeling of future climates, and modification at local or microscale. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 230.

334 Atmospheric Hazards. (3)
Examination of the causes, consequences, and spatial distribution of hazards deriving from or impacting the atmosphere. Both the physical properties and processes of natural hazards (e.g. hurricanes, tornadoes, biochemical) and the human actions and reactions to these hazards will be emphasized at the local, regional, and global scales. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 101 or GEOL 101 or permission of the instructor.

340 Cartography and Visualization of Spatial Data. (3)
Introduction to cartographic methods for the visualization and analysis of geographic phenomena. Principles of design are stressed with particular emphasis on methods for symbolizing point, line, and area elements, and the principles and use of color in cartography. Produce publication quality maps using industry standard software. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 240.

341 Cartography and Visualization of Spatial Data 2. (3)
Advanced techniques of cartographic production with emphasis on data representation and design for thematic mapping. Statistical methods for manipulating and symbolizing ordered spatial data are stressed. Topics covered include data classification, available inventories of data bases, and methods of interpolation. Techniques studied include dot, choropleth, proportional symbol, and isarithmic mapping. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 250, 340.

342 Introduction to Remote Sensing. (3)
Principles of remote sensing and its applications on earth resources. Topics include the physics of remote sensing, aerial photo interpretation, photogrammetry, multispectral, hyperspectral, thermal infrared remote sensing, RADAR/LIDAR, remote sensing of vegetation, water, and soils.

343 Advanced Remote Sensing. (3)
Digital image processing techniques utilized to analyze remotely sensed data. Topics include remote sensing data collection, image pre-processing, image enhancement, image classification, post classification analysis, and multi-temporal data analysis for change detection. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 342.

344 Advanced Geographic Information Systems Analysis. (3)
Examination and use of analysis techniques in geographic information systems (GIS). Introduction to basic GIS programming. Diagram-ming GIS logic and processing flows. Exposure to widely used GIS data models. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 240, 265; or permission of the instructor.

350 Geography of the United States and Canada. (3)
Comprehensive survey of geographic regions, settlement, land use, natural resources, and potentialities of the United States and Canada.

351 Geography of Latin America and the Caribbean. (3)
Physical and cultural patterns in a diverse world region. Emphasizes population and settlement, agriculture, and environmental hazards in the context of development.

352 Geography of Africa. (3)
A survey and analysis of the physical and cultural environments of Africa.

353 Geography of Indiana. (3)
A geographic examination of the physical, cultural, and economic diversity of the state. Field experiences supplement classroom activities.

354 Geography of Asia. (3)
The geography of South, Southwest, Southeast, and East Asia. A survey and analysis of the physical geographic patterns, bases of cultural diversity, and changing spatial aspects of political organization.

356 Geography of Russia and Its Neighbors. (3)
Geographic analysis of the locational, environmental, economic, and cultural diversity of the successor countries to the Soviet Union. Regional examination of Russia, Baltic, and other East European countries, Transcaucasia and Central Asia.

357 Geography of Europe. (3)
Examines the changing physiographic, climatic, economic, and political environments of Europe. While addressing the entire European cultural area, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west, to the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the east, primary emphasis is given to countries of Western, Northern, Southern, and Central Europe.

360 Tours and Meetings Management. (3)
Introduces principles, strategies, and techniques applicable in planning and operational stages of tours, meetings, and other organized forms of travel and tourism, both leisure and business oriented. Faculty supervised practical field experience in tour planning and conducting. Lab fees. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 261, 262. 
    Open only to geography option 2 majors and minors, or by permission of the instructor.

369 Professional Experience. (3-6)
Paid full- or part-time work experiences with an organization allied to a student’s area of specialization. Assignments depend on student interests and the sponsor’s convenience. Used for paid work experience only. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson. 
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.

410 Broadcast Meteorology. (3)
Survey of the weathercasting industry. Topics include history of weathercasting, professional broadcast seals of approval, public weather information needs, and reporting of severe weather.

423 Population Geography. (3)
A systematic and regional analysis of areal patterns of population distribution, composition, migration, and growth, as well as their causes and the effects they have on the cultural landscape.

425 Physical Meteorology. (3)
Study of the physical processes of the atmosphere with a focus on solar and terrestrial radiation, clouds, and precipitation. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330; MATHS 165; PHYCS 120.

435 Satellite and Radar Meteorology. (3)
Study of the platforms and sensors of satellite and radar remote sensing systems used in meteorology and climatology. Emphasis is on satellite and radar products and their interpretation. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330.

443 Seminar in Advanced Techniques in Remote Sensing. (3)
Advanced techniques applied to remotely sensed data using state-of-the-art software. Review of current methods of computer and manual interpretation techniques. Includes active participation in classroom presentations. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 342, 343.

444 Advanced Cartography and Visualization of Spatial Data. (3)
Advanced course in interactive, multimedia, and animated cartography stressing the increasingly important role of digital cartography in cyberspace. Techniques are introduced for the creation of interactive products that facilitate the transformation of raw geospatial data into meaningful geographic knowledge. Projects are selected within the student’s area of interest. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 341.

445 Geographic Information Systems Applications Design and Development. (3)
Fundamentals of geographic information systems (GIS) programming. Develop and implement customized GIS applications. Exposure to widely used GIS software programming environments. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 265, 344, or permission of the instructor.

447 Thermodynamic Meteorology. (3)
Application of physical gas laws such as the equation of state and hydrostatic equation to investigate adiabatic processes and parcel theory as they relate to atmospheric instability and connective development. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330; MATHS 165, 166; PHYCS 120, 122.

448 Geographic Information System Design. (3)
Principles of geographic information system (GIS) design. Implementation of GIS technology. Database and user-interface design. Practical experience applying advanced GIS tools to analyze spatial data. Workshop format requires student motivated projects. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 344.

449 Synoptic Meteorology. (3)
Investigation of synoptic- and mesobeta-scale atmospheric systems, with a focus on mathematical and physical theories of weather forecasting and application of those theories through the use of satellite, radar, and numerical weather prediction technology. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330; PHYCS 120; MATHS 165.

450 Mesoscale Meteorology. (3)
Survey of mesoscale-related phenomena of the atmosphere, including thunderstorms, tornadoes, and lake-effect snow. Includes information about forecasting the occurrence and evolution of such phenomena with tools like Skew-T diagrams and Doppler radar. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330.

451 Dynamic Meteorology. (3)
Study of the variables that explain four-dimensional atmospheric behavior with primary focus on synoptic-scale processes. Special attention is given to the governing equations and associated approximation and assumption relevant to numerical weather prediction. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 330; MATHS 165, 166; PHYCS 120, 122.

460 Travel and Tourism Consulting. (3)
Familiarization with and assessment of various travel products and their distribution channels. Development of skills in problem solving and task functions such as: information gathering, promotion, reservation, and ticketing. Laboratory computer experience. Industry approved entry-level travel agent certification optional. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 261, 262. 
    Open only to geography option 2 majors and minors, or by permission of the instructor.

470 World Political Geography. (3)
Analysis of the contribution of physical and cultural characteristics of the nations of the world to domestic and foreign relations problems.

479 Practical Experience. (3-6)
Full- or part-time work experience with an organization allied to a student’s area of specialization. Assignments depend upon student interests and the sponsor’s convenience. Used for non-paid work experience only. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson. 
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.

480 Distant Areas Field Studies. (1-6)
Physical, economic, and cultural geography in areas distant from the campus. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson. 
    A total of 12 hours of credit may be earned, but no more than 6 in any one semester or term. 
    Open to students in geography, earth science, and allied subjects.

490 Field Observation of Severe Local Storms. (6)
Three-week field trip in the great plains region to forecast, observe, and document severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

491 Tourism Development. (3)
Discusses how to develop tourism destinations and activities that integrate sustainable economic development, accessibility, and indigenous cultural evolution with minimal impact on the environment. Includes site assessment, financial analysis, market forecasting, and impact assessment. 
    Prerequisite: GEOG 261, 262; or permission of the instructor.

495 Readings and Special Studies in Geography and Earth Science. (1-6)
Assigned special studies in geography and earth science, including readings, research projects, teaching problems, or assignment to an undergraduate class. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson. 
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.