Undergraduate Course Catalog

Elementary Education

T. Schroeder, Interim Chairperson 

The Department of Elementary Education prepares students to teach children in day-care centers, nursery schools, kindergartens, and first through sixth grades. 
    Students will be guided by the outline of baccalaureate degrees, the teacher education curriculum, and the concentration areas listed below. All programs qualify graduates for initial Indiana licenses to teach in their areas of preparation. Students will also be guided by the professional education assessment/decision points for teacher education programs. 


TEACHING MAJOR IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
EDUCATION (Birth–Grade 3), 111 hours

PREFIX     

NO   

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

AED
BIO
EDEL








EDFON
EDPSY

EDRDG

ENG


FCSFC
GEOG

GEOL
HIST
HSC
MATHS


MUSED
PHYCS
SCI
SPCED
SS

200
102
100
200
244
351
400
401
or
402
442
420
260
393
400
430
204
or
318
265
101
or
101
201
350
201
202
391
265
101
398
302
398

Underst Art
Bio Concepts
Ed Dem Soc
Plan Elem
Ed Soc Just
Tch Knd/Pri
St T Pre Kin
St T Kinderg (6)

St T Primary (6)
Adm ECE Pro
Fnds of Educ
Dev Elem Ed
Ed Psy El Ed
Rd Today Sch
Correctv Rdg
Children Lit (3)

Lt Yng Chld (3)
Inf/Tod Dvlt
Erth Sea Sky (3)
  
Planet Earth (3)
US 1492-1876
El S Hlth Pg
Num Alg Prob
Dat Geo Meas
Tch Math El
Bsc Mu Clsrm
Sci Concp Te (1-3)
Tch Sci Prim
Tch Dis G Ed
SS Child Pri

3
3
3
3
3
3
6


6
3
3
3
3
3
3


3
3


3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Directed electives, 8 hours from
EDEL
EDRDG
EDTEC
SPCED
340
390
350
371
Cult/Lang (3)
Emergent Lit (3)
Curr Integra (3)
Intr Mild In (3)




8

        

96 hrs
Concentration
EDEL




231
252
301
381
440
Fam Com Rel
Cr Play Exp
Tch PreK/Knd
Interactn Sk
Kindergarten

3
3
3
3
3


15 hrs

111 hrs
These major courses, AED 200, BIO 102, GEOG 101, GEOL 101, HIST 201, MATHS 201, MUSED 265 also fill a University Core Curriculum requirement.

TEACHING MAJOR IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
(Grades K-6), 111 hours

PREFIX     

NO   

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

AED
BIO
EDEL







EDFON
EDPSY

EDRDG

ENG

GEOG

GEOL
HIST
HSC
MATHS


MUSED
PHYCS
SCI
SPCED
SS

200
102
100
200
244
300
350
463
464
465
420
260
393
400
430
204
311
101
or
101
201
350
201
202
391
265
101
397
302
397

Underst Art
Bio Concepts
Ed Dem Soc
Plan Elem
Ed Soc Just
Elem Instruc
Tchg El Clsr
St Tch Elem
St Tch Elem 
St Tch Elem
Fnds of Educ
Dev Elem Ed
Ed Psy El Ed
Rd Today Sch
Correctv Rdg
Children Lit
L Arts Meth
Erth Sea Sky (3)
  
Planet Earth (3)
US 1492-1876
El S Hlth Pg
Num Alg Prob
Dat Geo Meas
Tch Math El
Bsc Mu Clsrm
Sci Concp Te (1-3)
Tch Sci Elem
Tch Dis G Ed
Tch S S Elem

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
6
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3


3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Directed electives, 8 hours from
EDEL

EDRDG
EDTEC
SPCED
231
340
390
350
371
Fam Com Rel (3)
Cult/Lang (3)
Emergent Lit (3)
Curr Integra (3)
Intr Mild In (3)





8

        

96 hrs
Concentration area

15 hrs


111 hrs
These major courses, AED 200, BIO 102, GEOG 101, GEOL 101, HIST 201, MATHS 201, MUSED 265 also fill a University Core Curriculum requirement.

The following are the concentration areas for the teaching major in Elementary Education.

English as a Second Language, 15 hours
Prepares teachers to work with non-native speakers of English in listening, writing, reading, and speaking skills. These courses can be applied toward licensure in Teaching English as a Second Language as well.

PREFIX 

NO  

SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

ENG
    
  
  
    
220
321
436
437
457
Lang Society
Linguistics
Th Res TESOL
Meth TESOL
Pr Tch TESOL

3
3
3
3
3


15 hrs

Kindergarten/Primary Education, 15 hours

EDEL



EDRDG

231
252
260
440
390

Fam Com Rel
Cr Play Exp
E C C & I
Kindergarten
Emergent Lit

3
3
3
3
3


15 hrs

Language Arts, 15 hours
Exploration in depth of the theory and content of the study of literature, writing, and language. Courses selected for this concentration are particularly related to content, issues, and concerns of the elementary classroom.

ENG
   

285
401

Intr Cr Wr
Con Seminar

3
3

Choose one of the following writing
courses
ENG


213
or
304
Intr Dig Lit (3)

Tch Writ El (3)



3

Choose one of the following
literature courses
ENG




302
or
318
or
414
El L A Multi (3)

Lt Yng Chld (3)

Yng Adlt Lit (3)





3

Choose one of the following 
language courses

ENG
  
    

220
or
321

Lang Society (3)

Linguistics (3)



3


15 hrs

Mathematics, 15 hours
Designed to provide a mathematics background in the five content standards characterizing the
K-12 mathematics curriculum: algebra, number and operations, geometry, measurement, and data analysis. These courses can be applied toward requirements for licensure in middle school mathematics.

MATHS




181
310
316
330
360

El Prob Stat
Top Alg EMST
Num Thy EMST
Tech E M S
Top Geo EMST

3
3
3
3
3


15 hrs

Modern Languages, 15 hours
Chinese option

CH


HIST

101
102
201
495

Beginning 1
Beginning 2
Intermed 1
Modern China

4
4
4
3


15 hrs
Classical culture option

CC
 

301
305

Cl Lit Trans (3-6)
Classic Myth

3
3

9 hours from CC, GRK, and LAT courses


9


15 hrs
French option

FR
 

 

201
202
301
302

Intermed 1
Intermed 2
Conversation
Composition

3
3
3
3

3 hours from 300-400-level FR courses


3


15 hrs
German option

GER
 
 
 

201
202
301
302

Intermed 1
Intermed 2
Conversation
Composition

3
3
3
3

3 hours from 300-400-level GER courses


3


15 hrs
Japanese option

JAPAN
 
 

101
102
334

Beg Jpn 1
Beg Jpn 2
Culture Civ

4
4
3

4 hours from

JAPAN
 

201
498

Intermed 1 (4)
Readings (1-6)


4

*Readings: the contents depend on
the student’s interests or needs.

15 hrs
Spanish option (minor)

SP
  
  
  

201
202
301
302

Intermed 1
Intermed 2
Conversation
Composition

3
3
3
3

3 hours from any 300-400-level SP course


3


15 hrs
Classical Languages Options, 15 hours
Greek option

GRK
 
 

 

101
102
201
202
305

Beginning 1
Beginning 2
Intermed 1
Intermed 2
Homer

3
3
3
3
3


15 hrs
Latin option

LAT
 
 

201
202
305

Intermed 1
Intermed 2
Composition (3-6)

3
3
3

6 hours from 300-400-level CC and LAT courses


6


15 hrs

Psychology and Counseling, 15 hours
Elementary teachers must understand the psychology of children; their thinking, feelings, behavior, development, learning, the measurement of these characteristics, and the environments in which they occur. These psychological issues are essential for understanding, interacting with, and instructing children.

15 hours from
Educational psychology

EDPSY
 
 
 

306
345
350
351

Behavior Anl (3)
Tests Meas (3)
Child Psych (3)
Adoles Psych (3)

Counseling psychology and guidance services

CPSY
  
  

400
420
470

Fundmtl Coun (3)
Psych Intvn (3)
Crs Cul Coun (3)

Psychological science

PSYSC
  
 

213
316
317

Adjustment (3)
Social Psysc (3)
Personality (3)


15 hrs
Students electing PSYSC courses must take PSYSC 100 for University Core Curriculum to satisfy prerequisites.


Teacher of Reading for Elementary concentration/license, 15 hours

EDRDG
   
  
  

320
390
427
450

Cont Area Rd
Emergent Lit
Rdg Div Lrnr
Rdg Strat Pr

3
3
3
6


15 hrs

Science, 15 hours
Includes a broad range of courses that cover life, earth, and physical sciences. Students seeking this option learn to use scientific knowledge, skills, and habits of mind to solve problems and think critically about the natural world. If GEOG 101 was selected for the University Core Curriculum requirement, then GEOL 201 must be selected for the concentration; if GEOL 101 was selected then GEOG 230 must be selected for the concentration.

ASTRO
GEOG
 
GEOL
SCI

101
230
or
201
498

Matr for Tch
Elem Meteor (3)
 
Earth Time (3)
Inquiry

3


3
3

6 hours from one area
Life sciences

BIO
 
 
BOT
ZOOL

112
216
401
460
441

Princ Bio 2 (4)
Ecology (3)
Develop Modn (3-6)
Plant Allie (4)
Entomology (3)





6

Physical sciences

CHEM

PHYCS 
  
 

108
111
102
110
482

Intro Chem (3)
Gen Chem 1 (4)
Sci Tch Matr (3)
Gen Phycs 1 (4)
Indpen Study (1-3)





6

Earth sciences

GEOG

GEOL
 
 

230
353
110
207
450

Elem Meteor (3)
Geog Indiana (3)
Dinosaurs (3)
Envir Geol (3)
Geol Indiana (3)





6


15 hrs
(GEOG 230 is not open to students who selected it as part of the concentration requirement.)


State/World Connections, 15 hours

Includes a broad range of courses from the social sciences chosen to help prepare teachers for educating students in a world of ever-expanding worldwide connections. Students selecting this concentration will learn how to use this content in their own teaching of students in elementary grades.

SS

392

Tch St/World

3

12 hours from four different subjects

ANTH




ECON


GEOG



HIST




POLS




PSYSC

SOC

 

101
103
105
111
342
116
279
310
150
350
351
353
100
198
201
202
415
130
237
280
293
342
100
316
100
421
424

Intr Culturl (3)
Archaeology (3)
Int Bio Anth (3)
Anth Cul Glb (3)
Amer Culture (3)
Survey Ideas (3)
Prob Em Nats (3)
Am Ec Hist 2 (3)
Global Geog (3)
U S Canada (3)
Lat Am Carib (3)
Geog Indiana (3)
Intro Am His (3)
Non West Civ (3)
US 1492-1876 (3)
US 1877-Pres (3)
Indiana (3)
Amer Nat Gov (3)
Stat Loc Pol (3)
Compar Systm (3)
Intl Relatns (3)
Publc Policy (3)
General (3)
Social Psysc (3)
Principles (3)
Minorities (3)
Family (3)



























12


15 hrs

Technology, 15 hours

“Technology is human innovation in action” (Technology for All. n.d.). This action facilitates the generation of knowledge that leads to the development of solutions that assist and extend our capabilities as people. Understanding the processes, knowledge bases, and contexts of human innovation in action is the intent of this concentration.

EDTEC

ITDPT

350
470
100
400

Curr Integra
Tech Policy
Tech Society
Caps Elem Gr

3
3
3
3

3 hours from

CS

EDCUR
EDRDG
EDTEC





MATHS

110
116
331
445
352
355
360
365
480
485
330

Intro C S (3)
Visual Prog (3)
Pub Sch Curr (3)
Compt in Rdg (3)
Web Mltmedia (3)
Emerge Tech (3)
EdTec Stud (3)
Vis Dig Lit (3)
EdTec Intern (2-4)
Tech Infra (3)
Tech E M S (3)











3


15 hrs

Wellness, 15 hours

Nutrition and family option

Designed to provide an integrated approach to understanding relationships among wellness, nutrition, and the family environment. The teacher is prepared to identify children at risk and apply problem-solving skills using appropriate community health resources.

FCSFC
FCSFN

250
240

Family Relat
Ntr Educatrs

3
3

9 hours from

FCSFC

FCSFN

202
380
110
395

Family Welln (3)
Parenting (3)
Fd Prep Sci (3)
Food Culture (3)




9


15 hrs
FCSFN 240 substitutes for FCSFN 340 for prerequisite purposes.

Physical education option
Provides both content knowledge and practical experiences in designing and implementing a developmentally appropriate physical education program on the elementary school level.

PEP


209
291
394

Int Teach PE
Motor Dev
P E Elem Sch

3
3
3

6 hours from

PEP



150
158
222
361

Intro to Fit (2)
Danc Gym Tum (2)
Fd Ct Inv Gm (2)
Dance Childr (2)




6


15 hrs
See Teachers College Interdepartmental for Dual Major in Elementary and Special Education.


EDUCATION: ELEMENTARY (EDEL)

100 Education in a Democratic Society. (3)
Serves as an initial investigation into teaching and the teaching profession. Participation in civic activities as a way of coming to understand children and various conditions that influence the teaching profession. 
    May be repeated only once.

200 Planning for the Elementary and Early Childhood Classroom. (3)
Ties direct classroom experience to seminar content. Emphasizes integrating, implementing, and interpreting laboratory experiences. Permission required. May be repeated only once. 
    Prerequisite: completion of decision point 1; permission of the department chairperson.

231 Family and Community Relations. (3)
Explores important and complex roles of families in the educational development of young children. Factors affecting family-child, family-community, and child-community interactions and skills are studied and related to the educational process.

244 Early and Elementary Education for Social Justice. (3)
A broad understanding of social, economic, cultural, and linguistic diversity within the context of early and elementary education in today's society.

252 Creative Experiences for Young Children. (3)
Designed to develop knowledge of creative activities that are developmentally appropriate for the young child. Skill in providing creative and play experiences.

260 Early Childhood Curriculum and Instruction. (3)
Focuses on knowledge and skills necessary to design and implement a curriculum for young children. Integrated learning, emergent curriculum, and project work are emphasized. Includes laboratory component.

299X Experimental/Developmental Topics. (3-6)
Topics relevant to the discipline. Course titles will be announced before each semester. 
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.

300 Management, Organization, and Instruction in the Elementary Education Classroom. (3)
Departmental themes concerning teaching and learning in elementary schools will be extended. This seminar focuses on instructional methods and classroom management. 
    Prerequisite: C or better grade in EDEL 200; admission to the teacher education program. 
    Open only to elementary education majors. 
    May be repeated only once.

301 Teaching in the Pre-Kindergarten/Kindergarten Program. (3)
Planning and implementing programs for children ages three through five. 
    Prerequisite: admission to the teacher education program; permission of the department chairperson. 
    Parallel: EDEL 381. 
    Open only to early childhood majors. 
    Students are not permitted to register simultaneously in EDEL 301 and 351. 
    May be repeated only once.

340 Culture and Language in Teaching and Learning. (3)
Examines the impact of culture and language on teaching and learning. Discusses teacher behaviors, educational materials, and school practices that affect the academic success of students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. 
    Prerequisite: EDEL 200.

350 Teaching in the Elementary Education Classroom. (3)
Departmental themes concerning teaching and learning in elementary schools will be extended. Laboratory experience focuses on classroom instruction, organization, and management. 
    Prerequisite: admission to the teacher education program; C or better grade in EDEL 300; permission of the department chairperson. 
    Open only to elementary education majors. 
    May be repeated only once.

351 Teaching in the Kindergarten/Primary Program. (3)
Planning and implementing programs for children in kindergarten and primary grades. 
    Prerequisite: admission to teacher education program. 
    Open only to early childhood education majors. Students are not permitted to register simultaneously in EDEL 301 and 351. 
    May be repeated only once.

381 Interaction Skills for the Young Child. (3)
Introduces basic skills every young child needs to acquire in order to use oral and written language competently in society. Deals with materials, methods, principles of learning, and conditions necessary for optimum learning. 
    Prerequisite: admission to the teacher education program; permission of the department chairperson. 
    Parallel: EDEL 301.

400 Student Teaching: Pre-Kindergarten. (6)
After 93 hours, but before their last semester, students enroll in EDEL 400 (6). Offered credit/no credit only. 
    Prerequisite: admission to student teaching; C or better grades in EDEL 301, 351; EDRDG 400; SS 398; SCI 398; EDPSY 393; MATHS 391; 2.5 or better overall grade-point average; permission of the department chairperson. 

401 Student Teaching: Kindergarten. (6)
During the last semester students enroll in either EDEL 401 or 402. Offered credit/no credit only. 
    Prerequisite: admission to student teaching; C or better grades in EDEL 301, 351; EDRDG 400; SS 398; SCI 398; EDPSY 393; MATHS 391; 2.5 or better overall grade-point average; permission of the department chairperson. 

402 Student Teaching: Primary Grades. (6)
During their last semester students enroll in either EDEL 401 or 402. Offered credit/no credit only. 
    Prerequisite: admission to student teaching; C or better grades in EDEL 301, 351; EDRDG 400; SS 398; SCI 398; EDPSY 393; MATHS 391; 2.5 or better overall grade-point average; permission of the department chairperson.

440 Kindergarten Education. (3)
Development of the kindergarten-primary curriculum with special emphasis on kindergarten children and procedures to be used in their development. 
    Prerequisite: admission to the teacher education program.

442 Administration of Early Childhood Programs. (3)
Activities of young children in pre-kindergarten. Organization, administration, and educational program of pre-kindergarten care. 
    Prerequisite: admission to the teacher education program.

450 Senior Seminar in Early Childhood and Elementary Education. (3)
Follows student teaching, and synthesizes information and strategies gained throughout the program. Must show satisfactory completion of student teaching to register. Students must earn a C or better grade. 
    Prerequisite: EDEL 463, 464, 465, or EDEL 401, 402; permission of the department chairperson. 
    Open only to elementary education and early childhood majors. 
    May be repeated only once.

455 Senior Seminar in Education. (1)
Taken concurrently with EDEL 464 and SPCED 489, synthesizes information and strategies gained throughout the elementary education program. Grade of C or better required. 
    Prerequisite: professional education requirements; permission of the department chairperson. 
    Parallel: EDEL 464; SPCED 489. 
    Open only to dual majors in elementary and special education.

463 Student Teaching: Elementary. (3)
Students enroll simultaneously for EDEL 463 (3), 464 (6), 465 (3). Offered credit/no credit only. 
    Prerequisite: admission to student teaching; C or better grades in EDEL 300, 350; EDRDG 400; SS 397; SCI 397; EDPSY 393; MATHS 391; 2.5 or better overall grade-point average; permission of the department chairperson. 
    Parallel: EDEL 464, 465. 
    Open only to elementary education majors.

464 Student Teaching: Elementary. (6)
Students enroll simultaneously for EDEL 463 (3), 464 (6), 465 (3). Offered credit/no credit only. 
    Prerequisite: admission to student teaching; C or better grades in EDEL 300, 350; EDRDG 400; SS 397; SCI 397; EDPSY 393; MATHS 391; 2.5 or better overall grade-point average; permission of the department chairperson. 
    Parallel: EDEL 463, 465. 
    Open only to elementary education majors.

465 Student Teaching: Elementary. (3)
Students enroll simultaneously for EDEL 463 (3), 464 (6), 465 (3). Offered credit/no credit only. 
    Prerequisite: admission to student teaching; C or better grades in EDEL 300, 350; EDRDG 400; SS 397; SCI 397; EDPSY 393; MATHS 391; 2.5 or better overall grade-point average; permission of the department chairperson 
    Parallel: EDEL 463, 464. 
    Open only to elementary education majors.

468 Student Teaching: Kindergarten. (6)
Designed to give future kindergarten teachers the opportunity to develop teaching competence under supervision of professional teachers cooperating with the university in the student teaching program. Offered credit/no credit only. 
    Prerequisite: admission to student teaching.

490 Practicum in Elementary Education. (1-3)
Laboratory and seminar course involving a study of progressive school practices; the philosophy of education underlying and the possibilities of using progressive practices in public schools. 
    A total of 3 hours of credit may be earned.

491 Independent Study in Elementary Education. (1-6)
Independent study and research in elementary education. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson. 
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.

492 Issues in Elementary Education. (1-2)
An analysis of the student’s professional preparation for teaching, identifying areas in which students need to bolster weaknesses and augment strengths and arranging for more preparation in these areas. 
    Prerequisite: one term of student teaching. 
    A total of 2 hours of credit may be earned.

EDUCATION: READING (EDRDG)

320 Content Area Reading. (3)
Practical procedures for developing effective reading skills to be applied by all secondary classroom teachers. Focuses on relationships between the process of reading and learning of content, planning for a range of student reading skills, and methods and materials. 
    Prerequisite: introductory course (EDEL 100 or EDSEC 150 or SPCED 201) with a C or better grade. 
    May be repeated only once.

390 Emergent Literacy. (3)
Basic understanding of environments and planned activities that foster positive attitudes and interests related to reading, procedures that stimulate early literacy development, and related practical experiences with young children. 
    Prerequisite: introductory course (EDEL 100 or EDSEC 150 or SPCED 201) with a C or better grade. 
    May be repeated only once.

400 Teaching of Reading in Today’s Schools. (3)
Designed to review the current thinking, approaches, and methodology of teaching reading in today’s schools. Attention is directed to theories of reading, emergent literacy, comprehension, vocabulary, and work analysis strategies as well as the planning of the total developmental reading program, with emphasis on reading at the elementary level. 
    Prerequisite: admission to the teacher education program. 
    May be repeated only once.

401 Reading in Today’s Middle School. (3)
Designed to review current thinking, approaches, and methodology of teaching reading in today’s middle schools. Attention is directed to theories of reading, comprehension, and vocabulary, as well as planning and developmental reading program in the middle school. EDRDG 400 may not be substituted for this course. 
    Prerequisite: admission to the teacher education program. 
    May be repeated only once.

427 Teaching Reading to Diverse Learners. (3)
Addresses issues of reading instruction for children with diverse backgrounds, including language, race, class, gender, ethnicity, and exceptionality. 
    Prerequisite: EDEL 244 and EDRDG 400; admission to the teacher education program; permission of the department chairperson; may be repeated only once. 
    Parallel: EDRDG 450.

430 Corrective Reading. (3)
Provides prospective teachers with understanding of difficulties in reading and practical experiences in assessing reading difficulties and in study of corrective treatments. Includes guided laboratory experience. Must earn a grade of C or better to pass the course. 
    Prerequisite: C or better grade in EDRDG 320 and/or 400; admission to the teacher education program; permission of the department chairperson. 
    May be repeated only once.

431 Corrective Reading for the Middle School. (3)
Provides an understanding of difficulties in reading and practical experiences in assessing and correcting reading difficulties in the middle school. Includes guided laboratory experience with middle school students. Must earn a grade of C or better to pass the course. EDRDG 430 may not be substituted for this course. 
    Prerequisite: C or better grade in EDRDG 320 and/or 401; admission to the teacher education program; permission of the department chairperson. 
    May be repeated only once.

445 Using Computers in Reading Instruction. (3)
Prepares prospective elementary school teachers to use the computer appropriately and effectively in a classroom reading program. Includes attention to commercially prepared courseware and teacher-developed applications. 
    Prerequisite: EDTEC 120 or 350 for computer license add-on students; EDRDG 400 or its equivalent for others; admission to the teacher education program. 

450 Reading Strategies and Practicum. (6)
Provides prospective classroom teachers (K-12) with opportunities to study and try various approaches and strategies in teaching reading. Offers experience in grouping students of varying reading abilities and in planning and implementing a classroom reading program appropriate for these students. 
    Prerequisite: EDEL 244; EDRDG 400; admission to the teacher education program; permission of the department chairperson. 
    Parallel: EDRDG 427.

490 Strategies in the Teaching of Reading. (3)
Provides preservice teachers with the opportunity to fully explore the principles and practices underlying a balanced reading program while in a student teaching experience. Includes theory refinement, application experiences, and reflection activities. 
    Prerequisite: EDRDG 430; successful completion of decision point 3; permission of the department chairperson. 
    Parallel: student teaching.

498 Seminar in the Teaching of Literacy. (3)
Designed to provide students an opportunity to discuss, reflect on, and consider the teaching of reading and writing as well as to explore other areas of interest. Also focuses on discussion of the whole school reading and writing program and implications of policy on school practice. 
    Prerequisite: EDEL 463, 464, 465; EDRDG 490; permission of the department chairperson.
    May be repeated only once.