Undergraduate Course Catalog

Biology

K. Badger, Chairperson

The Department of Biology offers programs for students preparing for careers in science teaching, laboratory biology, environmental biology and health professions such as medicine, medical technology and dentistry.

The laboratory sciences of cellular and molecular biology, genetics, and microbiology offer in-depth opportunities for students pursuing bioscience positions in medicine, government, academia, and industry. Experiences with the modern tools of biotechnology are a central theme for all laboratory biology concentrations and the department offers a biotechnology certification program. Biologists in environmental careers work to maintain the natural world for future generations. The department’s conservation biology programs focus on preparing students for careers related to the conservation of plant and animal biodiversity and the science supporting the sustainabile management of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Further information about careers for biology majors can be found on our departmental website.

The biology major offers a core program intended to develop a common background in biology and additional courses in specialized concentrations designed to prepare students for careers or graduate work in aquatic biology and fisheries, field botany, cellular and molecular biology, environmental biology, genetics, microbiology, wildlife biology and conservation, and zoology. Our general biology concentration allows students to pursue an individualized program for their specific career goals as a biologist. Preprofessional majors add selected courses to meet entrance requirements into medical, dental, and medical technology schools. A teaching major in life science is offered for students who plan to teach in the secondary schools. (Additional course requirements for science teaching programs appear in this catalog under Interdepartmental Programs in the College of Sciences and Humanities.)

Students interested in pursuing graduate work in a biological science should be aware that graduate schools generally require the following:

  • proficiency in at least one foreign language, computer science, or statistics;
  • chemistry through the organic sequence; biochemistry recommended;
  • one year of college physics; and
  • mathematics through the calculus sequence.

It is strongly recommended that students seek departmental advising, on an individual basis, early in their programs to plan course work sequences and obtain specific information about their selected emphasis areas and possible certification.


MAJOR IN BIOLOGY (BA/BS), 65-74 hours

Biology majors must earn a minimum grade of C (2.0) in BIO 111 and BIO 112 in order to progress into 200-400 level biology courses and must earn a C (2.0) grade in BIO 210 in order to graduate. Biology majors are required to take a departmental examination before graduation.

PREFIX NO SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

Common core, 47-48 hours

BIO







CHEM


MATH





PHYC

111
112
210
214
215
216
217
499
111
112
231
108
112
or
161
or
165
110

Principles of Biology 1
Principles of Biology 2
Introduction to Botany
Genetics
Cell Biology
Ecology
Methods in Ecology
Symposium
General Chemistry 1
General Chemistry 2
Organic Chemistry 1
Intermediate Algebra
Precalculus Trigonometry (3)

Applied Calculus 1 (3)

Calculus 1 (4)
General Physics 1

4
4
 3 
4
4
3
2
1
4
4
4
3




3-4
4

     

47-48 hrs
Complete one concentration
Concentration 1: General, 18-24 hours

Four elective courses at the 300-level or above in BIO, BIOT, BOT, or ZOOL. Two elective courses with any of the following prefixes: ANAT, ANTH, BIO, BIOT, BOT, CHEM, CS, GEOG, GEOL, MATH, NREM, PHYC, PHYS and HSC, and ZOOL. Courses taken to fulfill University Core Curriculum requirements and biology major requirements may not be used as electives in this category. Only courses designed primarily for students majoring in the respective departments may be used as electives in this category.









18-24 hrs




65-72 hrs
Concentration 2: Wildlife biology and conservation, 25-26 hours

BIO
BOT




GEOG
ZOOL


448
380
440
470
or
481
265
440
446
483

Biometry
Forestry
Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
Dendrology (3)

Aquatic Botany (4)
Intro Geographic Info Systems
Ornithology
Mammalogy
Wildlife Biology

3
3
 4 


3-4
3
3
3
3

     

72-74 hrs
Concentration 3: Aquatic biology and fisheries, 22-23 hours

BIO

BOT

ZOOL



MATH

448
480
481
or
465
432
444
484
161

Biometry
Limnology
Aquatic Botany (4)

Fishery Resources Management (3)
Invertebrate Zoology
Ichthyology
Aquatic Entomology
Applied Calculus 1

3
3
  

3-4
4
3
3
3

     

69-71 hrs
American Fisheries Society professional certification requirements should be considered. See aquatic biology and fisheries advisor in the Department of Biology for information. 
Concentration 4: Microbiology, 26 hours

BIO



BOT
CHEM

313
341
344
446
446
360

Microbiology
Pathogenic Bacteriology
Immunology
Applied Microbiology
Medical Mycology
Essentials of Biochemistry

4
3
4
3
3
4

5 hours from 200-400 level BIO, BIOT, BOT, or ZOOL

5

     

73-74 hrs
Concentration 5: Genetics, 21 hours
Genetics concentration students must earn a minimum grade of C (2.0) in BIO 214 (Genetics) in order to progress into the concentration specific classes.

BIO




448
452
453
454
457

Biometry
Advanced Genetics
Human Genetic Problem Humanity
Genomes: Genomics Proteomics
Molecular Biology

3
3
3
3
4

5 hours from 200-400 level BIO, BIOT, BOT, or ZOOL

5

     

68-69 hrs
Concentration 6: Cellular and molecular biology, 25 hours

BIO



CHEM



313
344
457
470
360
or
463
and
465

Microbiology
Immunology
Molecular Biology
Developmental Biology
Essentials of Biochemistry (4)

Principles of Biochemistry 1 (3)

Biochemistry Lab Techniques (1)

4
4
4
4




4

5 hours from

BIO


369
394
456
498

Internship in Biology (1-6)
Practicum in Biology (1-3)
Cancer Biology (3)
Undergraduate Research (1-3)

 

BIOT (any 2 BIOT classes, except BIOT 493)   

BOT
CHEM

451
464

Plant Physiology (4)
Principles of Biochemistry 2 (3)

5

     

72-73 hrs
Recommended electives are BIO 341, 446, 452, 453, 460, 482; BIOT 493; BOT 446; MATH 162 or 166; PHYC 112 or 122; or SCI 501.
Concentration 7: Field botany, 23 hours

BIO
BOT




NREM

448
380
440
470
480
481
221

Biometry
Forestry
Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
Dendrology
Plant Ecology
Aquatic Botany
Soil Resources

3
3
4
3
3
4
3

     

70-71 hrs
Concentration 8: Zoology, 21-22 hours

ZOOL

330
432

Struct and Dev of Vertebrates
Invertebrate Zoology

5
4

12-13 hours from
At least 9 hours must be taken from ZOOL

BIO
CHEM
ZOOL






448
360
347
440
441
444
445
446
484

Biometry (3)
Essentials of Biochemistry (4)
Animal Parasitology (3)
Ornithology (3)
Entomology (3)
Ichthyology (3)
Herpetology (3)
Mammalogy (3)
Aquatic Entomology (3)

12-13

     

68-70 hrs
     

65-74 hrs

MINOR IN BIOLOGY, 19-20 hours

PREFIX 
NO    SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

Students planning to minor in biology should choose 200-level courses which fulfill prerequisites for 300- and 400-level courses in the minor. The 300- and 400-level courses should be chosen from the concentrations listed for biology majors.  BIO 369, 394, and 498 do not count in the minor. Minors may choose only one area of emphasis.
Choose one group  

BIO




111
112
or
111
113

Principles of Biology 1 (4)
Principles of Biology 2 (4)

Principles of Biology 1 (4)
Microbiology for Health Sci (5)



 

8-9 hrs

Choose one area of emphasis
Cellular/molecular biology emphasis, 11 hours
Directed electives
 
BIO 214 Genetics 4

7 hours from
   
BIO 215 Cell Biology (4)   
300- or 400-level courses in BIO, BIOT, BOT, or ZOOL (3-4) 7
      11 hrs
Environmental science emphasis, 11 hours
Directed electives
 
BIO 210 Introduction to Botany 3

8 hours from
   
BIO 216 Ecology (3)
 

300- or 400-level courses in BIO, BIOT, BOT, or ZOOL (3-5)

8

  11 hrs
     

19-20 hrs

MINOR IN PHYSIOLOGY, 20-21 hours
(See Department of Physiology and Health Science.)

TEACHER EDUCATION

SCIENCE TEACHING MAJORS

(See Science, College of Sciences and Humanities, for the teaching major in life science.) 

MAJOR IN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY

This program leads to a bachelor of science degree with a major in medical technology. The medical technologist is prepared for such laboratory work as bacteriology, chemistry, serology, and blood bank technology in hospital laboratories, physicians’ and surgeons’ clinics, and federal, state, and municipal health laboratories as well as research laboratories and commercial companies making biological products.

The departmental major in medical technology and the University Core Curriculum requirements and elective courses, all of which must total at least 88 credits, are to be completed in the first three years of study. The fourth or senior year consists of a twelve-month clinical laboratory program in an accredited hospital school of medical technology. Thirty-two credits are granted for the successful completion of this year. The minimum total for the degree is 120 credits.

Admission to a school of medical technology is determined entirely by the school applied to and is based on such considerations as scholastic standing (e.g., minimum grade-point average of 2.5), personal interviews, and recommendations. Completion of the first three years does not guarantee admission to the clinical year; students are therefore advised to plan an alternative program that may be completed in the fourth year. Students may then reapply for the clinical year.

The university has established affiliations for preparation of medical technologists with the following Indiana hospitals: Saint Francis Hospital in Beech Grove, Parkview Hospital in Fort Wayne, IU Health Methodist Hospital in Indianapolis, Good Samaritan Hospital in Vincennes, and St. Margaret Mercy Health Care Centers in Hammond. We are also affiliated with Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Tennessee.

MAJOR IN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY (BA/BS), 51 hours

Recommended electives are BIO 112, 214, 215; PHYC 110; and MGT 300. 

PREFIX NO SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

ANAT
BIO



CHEM





MATH
PHYS
ZOOL

201
111
313
341
344
111
112
225
231
325
360
108
215
347

Fundamentals of Human Anatomy
Principles of Biology 1
Microbiology
Pathogenic Bacteriology
Immunology
General Chemistry 1
General Chemistry 2
Chemical Analysis
Organic Chemistry 1
Instrument Meths of Analy
Essentials of Biochemistry
Intermediate Algebra
Human Physiology
Animal Parasitology

3
4
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
3
4
3
5
3





51 hrs

PREDENTAL PREPARATION

Although most students entering dental school will have completed four years of predental work, those with outstanding qualifications may be admitted after only three years. To qualify for admission to the Indiana University School of Dentistry at the close of three years of predental preparation, students must complete the major and specific course and scholastic requirements of the curriculum with a minimum of 94 credits at Ball State University. If accepted into dental school, they will use the credit earned the first year in the Indiana University School of Dentistry (32 credits) to meet the senior year course requirements for the baccalaureate degree from Ball State.

In addition to the basic science requirements, students entering the Indiana University School of Dentistry will be required to have credit in two semesters of English, including one semester of composition; one semester of interpersonal communication (COMM 210 or 240 is recommended); one semester of introductory psychology; one semester of physiology; and biochemistry (CHEM 360 is recommended). The following courses are recommended for elective credit: BIO 215, 313; CHEM 232; CC 102.

To be admitted to the Indiana University School of Dentistry, students must earn satisfactory scores on the Dental Admission Test given by the American Dental Association. Students are responsible for applying to the dental school and making arrangements to take the admission test. Students should take the test in the spring semester fifteen months before they hope to enroll in dental school, but preferably only after completing the required biology and chemistry courses. Students should formally apply for admission to dental school the next summer, twelve months in advance.        

Predental counseling is available in the Department of Biology.

MAJOR IN PREDENTAL PREPARATION (BA/BS), 37 hours

PREFIX NO SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

BIO


CHEM


PHYC

ZOOL

111
112
214
111
112
231
110
112
330

Principles of Biology 1
Principles of Biology 2
Genetics
General Chemistry 1
General Chemistry 2
Organic Chemistry 1
General Physics 1
General Physics 2
Struct and Dev of Vertebrates

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5





37 hrs

PREMEDICAL PREPARATION

In addition to general graduation requirements at Ball State, students wishing to complete this major must take biology, chemistry, and physics courses that meet or exceed the science requirements for admission to most medical schools. Some medical schools also require general psychology and sociology. Because admission to a medical school is not guaranteed (only 45 percent of applicants nationwide are admitted to medical schools), each pre-med student should complete another major in any subject.

The following courses are recommended for elective credit in the first three years: mathematics; BIO 214, 215, 313, 344; ANAT 201 and PHYS 215. Except when required to complete an undergraduate major, courses in human anatomy, human physiology, medical bacteriology, medical biochemistry, and medical pharmacology will not be accepted by the School of Medicine as part of the 94 liberal arts credits.

Students should take the Medical College Admission Test in the spring or summer, twelve to fifteen months before they hope to enroll in medical school and should formally apply for admission to medical school that same summer, twelve months in advance.

Premedical counseling is available in the Department of Biology.

MAJOR IN PREMEDICAL PREPARATION (BA/BS), 50-54 hours

PREFIX NO SHORT TITLE

CR HRS

BIO

CHEM












PHYC

PSYS
SOC
ZOOL

111
112
111
112
225
231
232
or
234
235
360
or
463
and
464
110
112
100
100
330

Principles of Biology 1
Principles of Biology 2
General Chemistry 1
General Chemistry 2
Chemical Analysis
Organic Chemistry 1 (4)
Organic Chemistry 2 (4)

Organic Chemistry 1 (5)
Organic Chemistry 2 (5)
Essentials of Biochemistry (4)

Principles of Biochemistry 1 (3)

Principles of Biochemistry 2 (3)
General Physics 1
General Physics 2
Intro to Psychological Science
Principles of Sociology
Struct and Dev of Vertebrates

4
4
4
4
3




8-10




4-6
4
4
3
3
5





  50-54 hrs

PREPHARMACY PROGRAM

The prepharmacy program is designed for students who want to apply for admission to the Butler University College of Pharmacy or the Purdue University School of Pharmacy. When completed satisfactorily, the designated courses will meet the preprofessional curricular requirements of Purdue and Butler at the end of the second year. At both Purdue and Butler the combined prepharmacy-pharmacy program leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy requires six years. However, the number of applicants to any college of pharmacy exceeds the capacity of the school. Therefore, students are selected for admission into the prepharmacy and pharmacy programs at these schools based on considerations such as scholastic standing, character, and professional aptitude. Students should become familiar with the admission requirements stated in the bulletins of Butler and Purdue Universities.

Careful arrangement of the program for each year is essential so that courses may be completed in sequence and in the allotted time. In particular, general chemistry should be completed in the freshman year. Mathematics, including calculus, is highly desirable. Copies of the programs are available from the pre-pharmacy advisor located in the biology department. There are minor differences in requirements between the School of Pharmacy at Purdue and the College of Pharmacy at Butler. 

The prepharmacy programs do not lead to graduation from Ball State University. They merely supply students with an approved sequence of courses for the first two years of the complete six-year program. Furthermore, physical education is not a part of this program for students who hope to transfer to Purdue, but it is for those who hope to go to Butler. Students who drop out of the prepharmacy program and elect to follow degree programs of Ball State University will be expected to meet all Ball State degree requirements.

Prepharmacy counseling is available in the Department of Biology.    

PREVETERINARY - PREOPTOMETRY - PREDENTAL HYGIENE -
PREPHYSICIAN'S ASSISTANT - PRECHIOPRACTIC

Courses are offered that fulfill requirements for those students who are planning to apply for admission to schools of veterinary medicine, optometry, dental hygiene, physician's assistant, and prechiropractic. Preprofessional counseling for these programs is available in the Department of Biology. 

CERTIFICATE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, 20-26 hours
(See Certificates.)

ANATOMY (ANAT)  

201 Fundamentals of Human Anatomy (3)
Basic study of human anatomy. Emphasizes gross and functional anatomy but also includes microscopic study of selected tissues and organs. Two lectures and one two-hour laboratory period weekly.  

299X Experimental/Developmental Topics (3-6)
Topics relevant to the discipline. Course titles will be announced before each semester.
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.  

425 Human Embryology and Histology (4)
Examines human development from germ cell formation to organ formation including microscopic structure of tissue and abnormal development.
    Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112; or ANAT 201; or permission of the department chairperson.  

490 Special Studies in Anatomy (1-3)
Designed to give undergraduate anatomy students who exhibit special aptitude and interest an opportunity to pursue special lines of scientific investigation on an individual basis. Experimental work, wide reading, and development of research techniques or skills.
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson.
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned, but no more than 3 in any one semester or term.

BIOLOGY (BIO)

100 Biology for a Modern Society (3)
Considers biological issues related to the environment, genetics and biotechnology, human reproduction and development, and population biology. Historical, contemporary, and future implications of these issues are discussed. Core Transfer Library: Life Sciences (ILS 1503) 
    Not open to students who have credit in BIO 102, 111, or 112.

102 Biological Concepts for Teachers (3)
Principles of biology as they relate to energy requirements and reproductive processes of living organisms, including the study of plants and conservation with emphasis on the human role in the environment. Designed primarily for students in elementary education programs.

111 Principles of Biology 1 (4)
Designed for biology, allied health, and other science majors. Emphasis at cellular level: chemical and physical organization of life, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure and function, bioenergetics, cell division, genetics, gene expression, protein synthesis, and evolution. Lecture and laboratory. Core Transfer Library: Life Sciences (ILS 1501)
    Prerequisite: one year of high school chemistry, one semester of college chemistry; or the equivalent.

112 Principles of Biology 2 (4)
Examines the diversity, evolutionary relationships, ecology, and physiology of organisms in the animal kingdom with an introduction to the protozoans. Emphasizes structure and function at the organismal level, classification, and phylogenetic relationships. Lecture and laboratory. Core Transfer Library: Life Sciences (ILS 1502)

113 Microbiology for the Health Sciences (5)
Introductory course for students in applied health curricula. Presents biomolecules of life, enzyme interaction, physiology and structure of representative microorganisms. Emphasizes bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa of health significance and the host-parasite relationship. Microbiological techniques will be emphasized in laboratory. Core Transfer Library: Life Sciences (ILS 1505)

210 Introduction to Botany (3)
Examines evolutionary solutions to problems of survival and reproduction faced by plants and their allies (plants, fungi, protists). Problems are investigated from a structure-function basis in an evolutionary-phylogenic survey. Physiological processes are emphasized, including the selective pressures involved in the evolution of these mechanisms. Lecture and laboratory.
    Prerequisite: BIO 112.
    Prerequisite recommended: BIO 111.

214 Genetics (4)
Basic principles of heredity and variation emphasizing meiosis, Mendelian inheritance and probability considerations, sex and gene transmission and expression, linkage and crossing-over, the nature of the hereditary material, gene action, and genetic control of development.
    Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112.

215 Cell Biology (4)
An introduction to the biology of the cell, including cell differentiation and growth, the nature of the organization of the cell, basic bioenergetics and enzyme function, cell environment, membrane structure and function, cell metabolism, and the work performed by cells. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 111 and 112.

216 Ecology (3)
Effects of physical and biotic conditions on the distribution, abundance, and diversity of plants and animals. Dynamics of ecological systems at population, community, ecosystem, landscape, and global levels, and from an evolutionary perspective. Practical applications of ecological knowledge to environmental problems. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 112.

217 Methods in Ecology (2)
Introduction to scientific study designs, measurements, data analysis, and the logic of inference as applied to ecological research. Focuses on a field research project that culminates in a written report and an oral presentation.
    Prerequisite or parallel: BIO 216.

220 Ecological Issues in the 21st Century (3)
Fundamental concepts of ecology, including interactions between organisms and their environment, population/community dynamics, and structure/function of  ecosystems. Application of concepts to current ecological issues (e.g., species extinction, human population dynamics, human food production systems, natural resource depletion, and global environmental change). Intended for non-biology majors. 
    Not open to students who have credit in BIO 216. 
    Open only to non-biology majors.

254 Biology in the Social Context (3)
Designed to foster understanding of the interactions between and among human biological and social systems. Emphasizes biological concepts as they relate to health and behavior.
    Prerequisite recommended: college level introductory biology.
    Open only to social work or family and consumer sciences majors, or by permission of the department chairperson.

299X Experimental/Developmental Topics (1-6)
Topics relevant to the discipline. Course titles will be announced each semester.
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.

313 Microbiology (4)
Microorganisms including representative archaea, bacteria, viruses, viroids, prions, protozoa, algae, lichens, and fungi. Emphasizes morphology,
physiology, genetics, and control. Some consideration of applied microbiology and biotechnology. Lecture and laboratory. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 111.

341 Pathogenic Bacteriology (3)
Study of pathogenic bacteria with emphasis on morphology and physiology. Laboratory techniques for culturing, isolating, and identifying bacteria. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 113 or 313.

344 Immunology (4)
Examination of the basic principles of the immune system (components, responses, and regulation). This course will introduce basic concepts of immunology and discuss the role of immune function on the science and health community. The course will cover the basic concepts of immunology in a manner that facilitates an understanding of the complexity of field and the role of the immune system in infection and disease. Emphasis will be placed on human and murine immune systems.
    Prerequisite: BIO 215 or 313.

369 Internship in Biology (1-6)
Paid, supervised field and laboratory experiences in public or private agencies (or in the Department of Biology). Training involves application of biological principles in the work environment.
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson.
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.

390 Honors Colloquium in Biology (1-2)
Exploration of selected issues in biology with emphasis upon individual projects, study, and discussion.
    A total of 2 hours of credit may be earned.
    Open only to honors students except by permission of the department chairperson.

394 Practicum in Biology (1-3)
Practical application of biology in a variety of situations including biology instruction as undergraduate teaching assistants and discussion leaders, and practical experience in government or industrial laboratories and field stations.
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson.
    A total of 3 hours of credit may be earned.

401 Developments in Modern Biology (3-6)
Stresses recent discoveries in biology and integrates and enhances understanding of the basic principles of the discipline.
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson.
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.

416 Population Ecology (3)
Presents fundamental principles of population growth and regulation, including both within-species and between-species interactions. Implications for over-population, endangered species, and pest and game management are discussed. Laboratory includes both experimental studies and computer simulation exercises.
    Prerequisite: BIO 216.

418 Community and Ecosystem Ecology (3)
Principles of ecological organization at the community and ecosystems levels. Emphasizes the processes that influence the structure and function of communities and ecosystems. Laboratory includes field and lab studies of plant and animal systems.
    Prerequisite: BIO 216.

420 Field Biology of Distant Areas (3-12)
Includes study of the sciences peculiar to selected geographic areas. Ecology, flora, and fauna. Travel may be by air. Seminars may be scheduled regularly throughout the course. Registration fee may include travel charges as well as the general fee.
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson.
    A total of 12 hours of credit may be earned.

440 Evolution (3)
Principles, evidence, and the historical context of modern evolution theory. Some attention will be given to the origin of life and the evolution of plants and animals. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 111 or permission of the instructor.

446 Applied Microbiology (3)
The study of microorganisms that are beneficial or detrimental to changes in foods (including milk and milk products) and industrial fermentations. This is a lecture and laboratory course.
    Prerequisite: BIO 313 or permission of the department chairperson.

448 Biometry (3)
Principles and applications of statistics to biological problems. The use of parametric and nonparametric tests of significance in the analysis of data and the interpretation of experiments.

452 Advanced Genetics (3)
Bacterial and eukaryotic genetics with emphasis on recent developments in molecular genetics. Topics include alternative structures of DNA, mechanisms of DNA replication, mutagenesis, DNA rearrangements, regulation of gene expression, RNA processing, and molecular and mutagenetic analysis of cell cycle.
    Prerequisite: BIO 214; CHEM 231.
    Prerequisite recommended: BIO 215.

453 Human Genetics and the Problems of Humanity (3)
Current problems in human heredity. Human chromosome aberrations. DNA, the genetic code, and mutations. Consanguineous marriages and genetic defects. Mendelian principles applied to humans. Pedigrees and probability. Genetic screening and counseling. Social, ethical, and legal problems and advances in genetics.
    Prerequisite: BIO 214 or permission of the instructor or department chairperson.

454 Development and Evolution of Genomes: Genomics and Proteomics (3)
Analyses of the development, expression, and evolution of genomes through the examination of genomics and proteomics. Attempts to explore the theoretical basis of developing technologies to provide models for application to current questions in biological systems from the cellular or organismal levels by treatment of the genome as a system.
    Prerequisite: BIO 214, 215; or permission of the instructor.

456 Cancer Biology (3)
Examination of the biological basis of cancer, discussion of related contemporary issues, and overview of recent advances in cancer research. Emphasizes cancer progression, tumor production, etiology/epidemiology, prevention, modern therapies, and patient management. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 215 or permission of the instructor.

457 Molecular Biology (4)
Structure and function of macromolecules in living things. Emphasizes three-dimensional structures; models for enzyme mechanisms; DNA replication; protein synthesis and membrane function; and applications of biotechnology.
    Prerequisite: BIO 215 or permission of the department chairperson.

460 Introduction to Methods of Biological Imaging (4)
Biological imaging refers to any imaging technique used in biology. However, its use in microscopy to create images of objects or features too small to be detectable by the naked human eye is paramount. The theory, design, operation, and specimen preparation for the confocal light microscope and both the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Basic digital image manipulation is also covered. To be successful in the course, you must demonstrate competency on all three microscopes, develop a portfolio with high quality images for each type of microscopy, and complete an individual research project. Primarily designed for students interested in doing research in biology, biochemistry, or neuroscience. 
    Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. 
    Prerequisite recommended: cell biology and introductory physics.

470 Developmental Biology (4)
Recent advances and theories in early embryogenesis and developmental biology. Major emphasis on genetic and molecular mechanisms operating during developmental phenomena. Topics include fertilization, mosaic versus regulative development, regulation of gene expression, patterning, germ line and sex determination, and neoplasia.
    Prerequisite: BIO 215 or permission of the department chairperson.

480 Limnology (3)
The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of inland waters. Laboratory and several field trips will be devoted to exploring techniques for the evaluation of representative aquatic ecosystems.
    Prerequisite: BIO 216 or permission of the department chairperson.

482 Aquatic Microbiology (3)
Microorganisms indigenous to nonpolluted and polluted aquatic ecosystems. Emphasizes nutrient cycling and use of microorganisms as indicators of pollution. Morphology, physiology, and ecology of specific organisms. Lecture and laboratory.
    Prerequisite: BIO 313.

483 Marine Biology (3)
Introduction to marine environments. Properties of seawater, hydrodynamics. Phytoplankton and benthic plants. Primary production, nutrient cycles. Marine animals, surveys of major taxa. Adaptations for life on the bottom, open water, intertidal zones, estuaries, and abyssal regions.

492 Bioethical Decision Making (3)
Development of decision-making skills through the analysis and personal resolution of bioethical problems created by the application of new biological and biomedical knowledge and technologies.
    Prerequisite: junior standing and completion of the University Core Curriculum natural sciences component or permission of the department chairperson.

498 Undergraduate Research (1-3)
Designed to give undergraduate biology students with special aptitude an opportunity to participate in scientific investigation.
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson.
    A total of 3 hours of credit may be earned.

499 Biology Undergraduate Symposium (1)
Prepares students for further studies or employment in the profession by developing a career plan, examining professional ethics, and establishing a professional identity. Evaluates student proficiency in the biological sciences. Offered credit/no credit only.
    Prerequisite: BIO 111 and 112 and 210 and 214 and 215 and 216 and 217.

BIOTECHNOLOGY (BIOT)

490 Introduction to Recombinant DNA and RNA Techniques (3)
Study of the fundamental methods and approaches used in biotechnology with experiences in recombinant DNA and RNA techniques. Emphasis on theory and practice of commonly used scientific techniques, experimental design, and reading and analysis of scientific literature.
    Prerequisite: BIO 215.

491 Theory and Applications of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (3)
Study of the theory of the polymerase chain reaction and its standard applications in research. Emphasis on experimental design and optimization of reactions, applications in DNA and RNA analysis, differential display, site-directed mutagenesis, and subcloning of PCR products.
    Prerequisite: BIO 215.

492 Protein Isolation and Analysis (3)
Study of the theory and application of techniques involved in protein isolation, characterization, and analysis. Emphasis on understanding principles of protein purification, laboratory experiences in protein separation, detection and analysis of structure function relationships.
    Prerequisite: BIO 215.

493 Professional Development in Biotechnology (1)
Emphasizes curriculum vita development, provides employment counseling, discusses job ethics, values, and job interview strategies, and includes a presentation by each student analyzing a journal article.

494 Cell Culture Techniques (2)
Study of the practice and theory of cell and tissue culture. Emphasis on the application of basic concepts and techniques to the in vitro culture of many different cell types.
    Prerequisite: BIOT 490.

495 DNA Sequencing and Bioinformatics (2)
Covers the determination of DNA nucleotide sequence and Internet/software utilization of DNA and protein databases for sequence analysis. 
    Prerequisite: BIOT 490.

496 Research Design and Presentation (2)
Emphasizes improvements in oral and written communication skills and development, and presentation of an independent research proposal.
    Prerequisite: BIOT 490.

BOTANY (BOT)

380 Forestry (3)
General course in forestry with emphasis on forest policy, ecology, and management. Current issues are discussed with particular reference to their social, political, and environmental implications. Lecture and laboratory.

440 Taxonomy of Vascular Plants (4)
Identification, use, and care of native and ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, and herbaceous plant material. The use of botanical keys,
manuals, and texts in the identification of the plant taxa. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 210 or permission of the instructor.

442 Economic Botany (3)
The cultivation, processing, environmental requirements, and use of plants and plant derivatives for food, drugs, dwellings, clothing, and power.

446 Medical Mycology (3)
Study of fungi with emphasis on pathogenic forms. Discusses methods for identification of fungi along with morphology and biochemistry of fungi.
    Prerequisite: BIO 313.

451 Plant Physiology (4)
An introductory treatment of the physiological activities of green plants with emphasis on plant growth substances, photosynthesis, and intermediate metabolism. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 111 or 210.

470 Dendrology (3)
The identification and site characterization of woody plants with an emphasis on midwestern tree species. Use of botanical features and keys in field identification. Correlation of species with site conditions, plant diseases, climatic parameters, associate species, and geographical distribution.

480 Plant Ecology (3)
Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of plants. Patterns, structure, and development of plants at the individual, population, and community level. Laboratory provides experience with ecological experimentation at the physiological, population, and community levels.
    Prerequisite: BIO 216 or permission of the instructor.

481 Aquatic Botany (4)
The collection and identification of nonvascular and vascular plants from freshwater ecosystems. Emphasizes the morphology, physiology, and ecology of these plants to explain their distribution in nature. Class project and field trips may be used to demonstrate ecological relationships. Two Saturday field trips required. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 210 or permission of the instructor.

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY (MEDT)

401 Urinalysis (1-10)
A study of basic renal anatomy, physiology, and pathology, as well as training in the preparation of patients and collection of urine samples, conduct of routine and special tests of urine, and identification of the various formed elements in urine sediment.
    A total of 10 hours of credit may be earned.
    Open only to medical technology students in the clinical year.

402 Serology (1-10)
Principles of immunology. Histology and biochemistry of the immune system. Theory and practice of the detection of antibodies and other serum substances related to disease conditions using various diagnostic procedures.
    Prerequisite: BIO 344.
    A total of 10 hours of credit may be earned.
    Open only to medical technology students in the clinical year.

403 Microbiology (1-10)
Study of pathogenic organisms (bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, and animal parasites), emphasizing isolation, culture, identification, and antibiotic sensitivity. Experience in media preparation, staining techniques, and various biochemical and serological tests for identification and sensitivity.
    Prerequisite: BIO 341, 344.
    A total of 10 hours of credit may be earned.
    Open only to medical technology students in the clinical year.

404 Blood Bank (1-10)
Theory and practice of blood bank organization and procedure. Genetics and immunology of blood group systems; selection of donors; collection, processing, and storage of blood; preparation of blood products; typing, compatibility, and pretransfusion tests.
    A total of 10 hours of credit may be earned.
    Open only to medical technology students in the clinical year.

405 Special Topics in Medical Technology (1-10)
Study of a variety of topics of special interest in the field of medical technology. Areas discussed may include medical technology education, management of clinical laboratories, laboratory and research topics including radioimmunoassay, clinical correlation, and mathematical applications in medical technology. 
    A total of 10 hours of credit may be earned.
    Open only to medical technology students in the clinical year.

406 Medical Chemistry (1-10)
Theory and application of physiology, biochemistry, and organic chemistry in the laboratory diagnosis of abnormal metabolism. Experience with a variety of manual and automated test procedures, including preparation of patient samples, instrument calibration and maintenance, and quality control.
    Prerequisite: CHEM 360.
    A total of 10 hours of credit may be earned.
    Open only to medical technology students in the clinical year.

407 Hematology (1-10)
Study of blood, other body fluids, and bone marrow: cells, coagulation processes, and pathological conditions. Practice in collection of samples, staining procedures, and various tests concerned with cells and clotting mechanisms, including experience with related instrumentation.
    A total of 10 hours of credit may be earned.
    Open only to medical technology students in the clinical year.

408 Clinical Practicum (1-10)
Includes rotations throughout all areas of the clinical laboratory following all pertinent didactic courses. Students learn time management, multi-tasking and team participation as they work alongside clinical laboratory scientists in each section. Basic operation and function of all the instrumentation as well as common trouble-shooting and problem resolution are emphasized. This course primarily focuses on practical skills, but correlation with clinical material is included as well.        
    A total of 10 hours of credit may be earned. 
    Open only to medical technology majors in clinical year.  

PHYSIOLOGY (PHYS)  

205 Fundamentals of Human Physiology (3)
Human physiology emphasizing major functions of each system. Intended for health science and health and physical education teaching majors, science teaching majors and students entering the fields of radiography and radiation therapy. Includes use of animals or animal tissue.
    Prerequisite recommended: a course in biological science.
    Not open to nursing majors, respiratory therapy majors, or to students who have credit in PHYS 215.  

215 Human Physiology (5)
Study of cell physiology and all human body systems. Body fluid balance, acid-base balance, and temperature regulation are also covered. Group experimentation with recording apparatus. Includes use of animals or animal tissue.
    Prerequisite: ANAT 201 and course in biology or permission of the department chairperson.
    Prerequisite recommended: a chemistry course.  

299X Experimental/Developmental Topics (3-6)
Topics relevant to the discipline. Course titles will be announced before each semester.
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned.

411 Endocrinology (3)
Endocrine functions in humans and mammals with special emphasis on mechanisms. Normal hormone regulation and pathophysiological principles. Laboratory experience with small-mammal surgery and endocrine testing. One three-hour laboratory period weekly.
    Prerequisite: ANAT 201; one year of general chemistry.  

413 Renal Physiology (3)
A detailed study of the urinary system and excretory functions. Emphasizes human physiology but also includes comparative vertebrate systems. Laboratory study includes gross, microscopic anatomy, and small mammal surgery. One three-hour laboratory a week.
    Prerequisite: one course each in chemistry, anatomy, and physiology or permission of the instructor.  

414 Cardiovascular Physiology (3)
A study of the dynamics of the human cardiovascular system, stressing applications of basic physical principles and the operation of physical regulatory systems. Includes seminar-style discussion of recent literature.
    Prerequisite: one course in physiology and one course in physics.  

415 Physiology of Aging (3)
Study of how physiological systems change with age and the mechanisms that are thought to cause these changes. Disorders and diseases of aging will also be covered.
    Prerequisite: one course each in chemistry and physiology or permission of the instructor.  

416 Human Toxicology (3)
A survey of chemical, physical, zoological, and botanical toxicoses in human health. The implications and methodology of dealing with hazardous substances and poisons will be considered in detail.
    Prerequisite: BIO 111 or one semester of PHYS; CHEM 101 or 111 and 112; or permission of the instructor.  

420 Neuroscience (3)
Introductory study of the organization and function of the nervous system. Emphasizes integration of the structure and function of the nervous system.
    Prerequisite: one year of chemistry; one year of biology or physiology.  

435 Pathophysiology (3)
The physiologic pathology of selected disease processes and dysfunctions. The pathogenesis of certain derangements with broad applicability. Underlying chemical, biological, and physical mechanisms will be studied. Laboratory experience will include demonstrations, specimen study, and visitations. One three-hour laboratory period weekly.
    Prerequisite: a course in anatomy, physiology, and chemistry.  

485 Research Techniques in Physiology (3)
Introduction to experimental design, laboratory techniques, and data analysis and interpretation in anatomy and physiology. Laboratory will include methods employing animal preparations, modern cellular/molecular techniques, and general histological procedures. Introduction to computer data acquisition and analysis.
    Prerequisite: one course in physiology or permission of the instructor.
    Prerequisite recommended: CHEM 360 or 463.  

490 Special Studies in Physiology (1-3)
Designed to give undergraduate physiology students who exhibit special aptitude and interest an opportunity to pursue special lines of scientific investigation on an individual basis. Experimental work, wide reading, and development of research techniques or skills.
    Prerequisite: permission of the department chairperson.
    A total of 6 hours of credit may be earned, but no more than 3 in any one semester or term.  

SCIENCE (SCI)

150 Basic Concepts in Science Education (3)
Serves as an introduction to all secondary science teaching programs. Content includes constructing an integrated vision about what it means to teach and learn science, investigating the nature of scientific inquiry, developing basic science teaching skills and dispositions, and beginning preparation for teacher licensure.
    Prerequisite or parallel: a science course from the science licensure area.
    Open only to secondary science teaching majors (all science license areas.)

295 Introduction to the Teaching of Science (3)
Philosophy and methodology of teaching science. Emphasizes the nature of science as a human endeavor, the national goal of scientific literacy for all, and the pedagogical strategies which enhance science concept acquisition. Lesson planning within the context of field experiences where appropriate. 
    Prerequisite: sophomore standing; at least 24 hours of science content courses; pass Decision Point 1. 
    Open only to science teaching majors.

392 Teaching of Science in the Junior High School (3)
Recent curriculum developments in junior high school science. Science curriculum instruction related to the physical, mental, and emotional characteristics of the junior high school student. Experiences in public schools may be required.
    Prerequisite: 24 hours of science courses or permission of the department chairperson.

396 Using Science Methods and Materials (3)
Methods and materials used in teaching secondary science. Designing activities for laboratory and field work, maintaining safety guidelines, and incorporating computers and electronic technology into data collection and analysis. Textbook selection, equipment inventories, and teaching on a science budget.
    Prerequisite: SCI 295.
    Parallel: EDJH 385; EDSE 380.
    Open only to teaching majors in life science, physical science, or earth/space science.

397 Teaching Science in the Elementary School (3)
Methods for teaching science concepts, skills, and attitudes are developed through classroom and clinical experiences. Special emphasis on making connections between science and other areas of the elementary curriculum.
    Prerequisite: 8 hours of science or permission of the department chairperson.

398 Teaching Science in the Early and Primary Grades (3)
Analysis of the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective processes inherent in science investigations for young children. Classroom and clinical experience using hands-on activities with science materials appropriate for pre-school and primary children. Designed for early childhood education programs.
    Prerequisite: 8 hours of science or permission of the department chairperson.

498 Science as Inquiry (3)
An integrated look at the scientific enterprise and the investigative process that drives it. Focuses on the development and use of cognitive and manipulative skills used to think scientifically about matters of personal interest in everyday life. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 102; GEOG 101 or GEOL 101; PHYC 101; permission of the instructor.
    Open only to elementary education majors with the science concentration.

ZOOLOGY (ZOOL)

330 Structure and Development of Vertebrates (5)
Comparative study of the anatomy, development, and evolutionary relationships of vertebrates. Lecture and laboratory. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 112 and 214 or 215 or 216.

347 Animal Parasitology (3)
Helminth, protozoan, and arthropod parasites of animals and humans. Emphasizes identification, life cycles, host-parasite relationships, and
physiology of common species. Some emphasis on medical and clinical aspects of parasites in humans, and tropical forms. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 111 or 112.

432 Invertebrate Zoology (4)
Comparative morphology, physiology, ecology, life histories, and phylogeny of invertebrate animal phyla. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 216.

440 Ornithology (3)
The study of birds including identification, systematics, anatomy, physiology, life histories, ecological relationships, and conservation. Field work in addition to regular laboratory periods may be required.
    Prerequisite: BIO 112 or permission of the department chairperson.

441 Entomology (3)
Anatomy, physiology, taxonomy, life histories, habits, and adaptations of insects. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 111 and 112 or permission of the instructor.

444 Ichthyology (3)
The study of fish with emphasis on identification, classification, anatomy and physiology, and ecology. Emphasizes Indiana species, but other important species will be included. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 216.

445 Herpetology (3)
Introduction to the biology of amphibians and reptiles, including their origin, anatomy, physiology, classification, behavior, and ecology. Through extensive field trips, the laboratory will emphasize identification and observation of amphibians and reptiles in their natural habitats.
    Prerequisite: BIO 112.

446 Mammalogy (3)
The evolutionary origin, characteristics, and distribution of recent mammals. The economic relationships of mammals. The collection and preservation of specimens. May require additional field work.
    Prerequisite: BIO 112 or permission of the department chairperson.

465 Fishery Resources Management (3)
The relationship of fisheries to other natural resources; a survey of aquatic habitats and the characteristics of fish that affect their management; basic principles, practices, and techniques of management of inland waters for fish production. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 216 or permission of the department chairperson.

483 Wildlife Biology (3)
The identification, population dynamics, and geographic distribution of wildlife species with particular emphasis on those of the United States. The harvest and management of wildlife. May require additional field work.
    Prerequisite: BIO 216 or permission of the department chairperson.

484 Aquatic Entomology (3)
Immature and adult stages of aquatic insects, including collecting techniques, identification, ecological requirements, morphology, and evolutionary adaptations to lentic and lotic conditions. Emphasizes aquatic insects as indicators of environmental quality and stress. 
    Prerequisite: BIO 216.